The Great Pyramid Angle

. . . All Roads Lead to Giza

Gary Osborn

Copyright © G Osborn. 2008. All Rights Reserved

The more I researched into these angle references; more remarkable data began to present itself.
I found that the angle of 52 degrees is also referenced and quite explicitly in these same sources and is almost as frequent as the angle of 23.5°.
This was interesting because the significant thing about the angle of 52º is that this is the all-round figure often cited in reference to the inclined sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza . . .

Before we continue it would help if we familiarise ourselves with some of the basic factual details about the Great Pyramid.

Below is my own cross-section diagram of the Great Pyramid, drawn 'to scale' and based on the accepted measurements as recorded by William Flinders Petrie during his survey of the pyramid between 1880 and 1882.

The Angle of 52° and the Crucifixion

As we see in the paintings below, the angle of 52° appears quite explicitly along with the angle of 23.5° in paintings on the theme of the Crucifixion – and especially those that depict Jesus carrying the tilted cross on the path up to the ‘Hill of Golgotha’ the “Place of the Skull”.

Figure 1
Figure 4
Figure 5

Artwork. Copyright © G Osborn. 2001. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7: The Osiris Constellation of Sah or Orion (Orionis) and the Crucifixion of Jesus
(Left): Orion shown crossing the south sky – the star Al Nitak in the right side of Orion targeted by the Southern Shaft of the Great Pyramid from the King’s Chamber. (The star Sirius is in front of Orion’s extended right foot and the River Nile reflects the same “river” of stars in the Milky Way, the “sky river” considered by the ancient Egyptians to be the “Celestial Nile” and their spiritual “water of life”).
(Right): The spear of the Roman soldier, Longinus piercing Christ’s right side at the angle of 52°.
This is my own rendition of a medieval illustration, (source unknown).
Note the Knight whose index finger is pointing close to 23 degrees and also the Triad of the three Marys, each with a Halo surrounding their heads.

Figure 8

Figure 10: Joseph of Arimathea Catches the Blood of Christ in the Communion Cup, the Holy Grail by Franz Stassen (1869-1949).

Figure 9

Figure 11: The Crucifixion With The Madonna, Saint John The Evangelist And Longinus Below. (French School. Artist and year unknown).

We should note that like Leonardo Da Vinci, Jean Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963), who was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager, playwright, artist and filmmaker, was also cited as a Grand Master of the Prieuré du Sion, which implicates him as an ‘initiate into the mysteries’ – and would anyone think anything less of Cocteau?
But there is additional evidence based on good research that Cocteau was also a member of the mysterious Angelic Society, as was Nicolas Poussin and others so it has been said. Another name for this society was Le Brouillard, meaning “mist”, “fog” or “clouds” . . . meaning a society obviously clouded in mystery.
While working on an article, author and investigative journalist Filip Coppens and I looked into the possibility that members of the Angelic Society, many of whom were prominent painters, poets, composers, writers etc., and notably active between the 16th and 18th century – were also responsible for many of these references to the angle of 23.5 degrees, as well as these references to the Great Pyramid (side angles of 52 degrees), also Giza and Orion – and all based on what appears to be an ancient tradition of knowledge that had been passed down through the centuries via the ‘underground stream’ that has its source in Arcadia – a name associated with the ‘Golden Age’ – and the ancient Egyptian Zep Tepi, meaning “the First Time”. All is entirely feasible and possible as we will see.

In their book, The Sion Revelation (2006), Picknett and Prince have this to say about the above quote from Jean Cocteau’s journal, which they also include in their book:

These rather tenuous connections between Giza, Orion and the Spear of Longinus, and strengthened only by these angles and some fragmentary correlating evidence, may all turn out to be wild supposition and considered as such, but I present it if only to inspire interest and hopefully encourage further exploration on this idea that the Gospels contain certain symbolic elements that point to the astronomical alignments observed at Giza and that these alignments are also linked with certain spiritual beliefs and concepts relating to resurrection,  rebirth, higher states of consciousness and how to attain profound spiritual truths through self-enlightenment.
It’s possible that certain astronomical alignments and observed cyclical and celestial phenomena were seen to reflect the same processes in human consciousness which were then anthropomorphised into gods and heroes and then mythologized to convey truths and instruct the initiate into the mysteries associated with human existence and the life beyond.
As we find with the ancient art of Astrology, it was believed that the macrocosm of the starry heavens reflected what was happening on Earth and in the microcosm of man and vice-versa, and so there were also practical reasons why the heavens were mapped and constantly observed.
Going back to the Longinus miniature, because the angles presented are particularly significant and have a connection, in that the Earth’s obliquity angle is an intrinsic one within the angle geometry of the Great Pyramid of 52° sides, one has to conclude that with the placing of both these angles together, especially in an illustration on this theme, that the artist was perhaps alluding to a deeper connection between the Great Pyramid, the knowledge of celestial motions relating to the Earth’s geophysics, the Orion constellation, the Crucifixion and the Spear of Longinus.
Perhaps these connections really are associated with charting the Cycle of Precession as a result of the Earth’s axis at 23.5°, using Orion as a gauge marker – i.e., the shaft (spear) which exits the Great Pyramid and targets the star Al Nitak – the first of the three belt stars of Orion (Osiris-Horus-Jesus) and at a specific point of time in the cycle.
Again, all this may be ‘wild supposition’, especially in sources that date to the 6th century AD, but regarding the fact that these angles are clearly evident and precise in many works of art expressing themes that are associative, it’s the only explanation that checks all the boxes.
According to Robert Bauval, the ancient Egyptians did indeed chart the Cycle of Precession using the star Al-Nitak of Orion as a gauge marker, and the reason why could be that "Precession is a post cataclysmic phenomenon" as geoscientists Allan and Delair have stated in their book Cataclysm.

In other words, we are being told that the present obliquity (tilt angle) of the Earth wasn’t always its condition and was therefore believed to be unnatural: And perhaps because it was observed that somewhere or ‘somewhen’ in the Precessional Cycle of 26,000 years, the same cataclysmic events that tilted the Earth from an upright position and which set the cycle in motion in the first place, are repeated.

Author and researcher Graham Hancock has this to say:


Many of us agree that this is what we are dealing with here with the additional information we are given in these numerous encoded sources, however, in the ancient mind, astronomical phenomena and the celestial cycles which they mapped and charted using the positions of certain stars, were also seen to be related to our collective human consciousness, and so because the earth being inclined from the ecliptic plane of the Sun was seen as an unnatural and inharmonious condition and possibly the result of a major global cataclysm in the past, it’s also possible that the spiritual and religious side to all this is really based on man’s belief that 1), this cataclysm was related in some way with the consciousness of man, and 2), the wish to reverse this situation, and this is something we will also examine – beginning with the connections I will present in the remainder of this page.
In any case, all the elements which have been encoded in these many sources throughout history appear to be leading us back to ancient Egypt and Giza, as if revealing the true meaning behind the stories presented in the Gospels - many parts of which were omitted and suppressed, while other parts were adopted, adapted and promulgated by those behind the inauguration of the Church for the instigation of power which was successfully established, reinforced and implemented throughout Europe for many centuries. By all accounts this was indeed a long period of human darkness, often filled with death, conflict, apprehension and fear.

Going back to these 23.5° references in the paintings, it appears we are being told that there is a relevant connection between the Crucifixion Cross and the Earth’s Axis.
As mentioned earlier, it’s been said that the Djed (backbone-spine) of Osiris also represented the shamanic axis mundi, ‘world tree’ or cosmic axis and therefore the Earth’s axis. So following logic and because it is commonly believed now that Jesus was based on earlier ‘resurrection gods’ (especially Osiris), it’s only logical that the Cross of Christ would also represent the Earth’s axis, and in the event that both the Djed of Osiris and the Cross of Jesus were raised up at a specific time of the year on and around the Spring Equinox.
But what is more perplexing here, is the apparent connection between the Great Pyramid and the ‘Hill of Golgotha,’ which by logical deduction means that the Great Pyramid in some way, also represents the human skull . . .

The hill was said to contain Adam’s skull. There are paintings of Jesus on the cross; his blood flowing down from his hands and feet and dividing into four streams that flow over the skull at the base of the cross.

The skull of course symbolises the name given to the hill known as Golgotha – the “place of the skull” – also known as Calvary.
The name ‘Calvary’ is from the Latin calvaria, which again means ‘Skull.’ Calvaria is a translation of the Greek Kranion which means ‘cranium’ – being the upper domelike portion of the skull . . . the roof of the skull.

“And when they came to the place which is called The Skull, there they crucified him,
and the criminals, one on the right and one on the left”.
Luke, 23.33.

As noted earlier, the skull features prominently in the Vanitas paintings, which also include various linear items and rectangular objects angled the same as the obliquity of the Earth’s axis.
However, what hadn’t been mentioned is that certain linear objects at the angle of 52° (and its inverse of 38°) is also a recurrent feature in these Vanitas paintings and are almost as common as the 23.5° angle references.
Again, the best examples are by 17th century Dutch painters, David Bailly and Evert Collier.
Collier’s paintings are particularly special as they not only include these two angles, but more significant angles associated with the geodetic relationship the Great Pyramid has with the Earth - it being an ancient monument in which this geophysical/geodetic knowledge has been encoded, as we will see.
As mentioned, the skull is always present in the paintings of Mary Magdalene along with the Crucifix which is often at the same angle, and there are numerous other sources that feature a skull.
For example, the skull is the main focus in the ‘Arcadian Shepherd’ paintings made famous by the phrase, “ET IN ARCADIA EGO” painted by 17th century artists Guercino and Poussin and these we will return to later.
But one source that may provide a few more clues, and especially at this stage in our enquiry, are the paintings on the theme of St. Jerome.

St. Jerome and the Skull

There exists a collection of paintings from the 16th century on the theme of St. Jerome.
Three of these were painted by famous German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), and several by Joos van Cleve (1485–1541).

We are told that St. Jerome, who lived between 331 and 420 AD, was an expert on Holy relics and sure enough, in these paintings he is often surrounded by all kinds of paraphernalia – not just relics, but also measuring instruments, compasses and books.
But the strange thing about these paintings – and it couldn’t be any more obvious that we are dealing with a code here – is that St. Jerome is often shown in the same posture: sitting in front of a skull, which is either upright or over to its side on the table, and like the paintings of John the Baptist that were produced in the same period, St. Jerome is pointing directly at the centre of the skull . . . his index finger at the angle of 23.5 degrees.

Below are three examples from the aforementioned artists and from the same period.


We can see then, the Templar cross is really formed from a three-dimensional pyramid which seems to have been cut down the edges and opened outwards into a flat, two-dimensional image.
That the Templar Cross design was based on the pyramid is again confirmed by 32nd Degree Mason, Frank C. Higgins, from his book, Ancient Freemasonry (1919), which I shall quote again:

This reference to the Great Pyramid of Giza in the Templar Cross – along with the tilted Earth’s axis encoded in the Maltese Cross as shown in Figure 17 on this page – are more clues and supporting evidence as to the revelations about the Great Pyramid – especially concerning the geophysical and geodetic information I have discovered within its angular, four-sided structure.
The ‘truth’ as known by the Freemasons and the Templars before them, including other related secret societies, has been ‘out there’ all the time and everyone has overlooked it.
Indeed, the Templar Cross appears to be telling us that this connection with the Great Pyramid as well as ancient knowledge of the geophysical nature of the Earth – i.e., its inclined axial rotation – exists. However the Templars have always been associated with the ‘Temple of Solomon,’ so could it be that the Great Pyramid is, and has always been, the original Temple?
This will perhaps always remain an enigma, and what we see here is perhaps due more to the likelihood that the knowledge of the Templars and the knowledge contained within the Great Pyramid, each stem from the same source and this is what connects them – but it’s worth mentioning in view of the above, and there are other connections . . .

XP . . . Chi-Rho

Higgins’ statement that the XP, “Chi-Rho” derives from the Sanskrit word “Rch” meaning “Light” is especially meaningful, in light of what I have presented thus far. His statement too that the ancient Egyptian derivative is “Ch R” for Horus, is significant and supports the belief that Jesus “the Christ” was based on the pagan Horus “the KRST” – the son and reincarnation of Osiris the ‘resurrection god’.
Also, the epithets given to Horus – “of the Pole” – “of the Two Horizons” – as mentioned in the quote by Higgins, shows an astrotheological connection between the shamanic/pagan ‘resurrection god’ (e.g., Osiris, Horus,) and the Earth’s axis, as well as the rising and setting positions of the Sun as it moves back and forth between its extreme solstice positions on the horizon.
We will return to this later.
These associations, even if they be considered vague and convoluted, reveals a relationship – not only between the Templars and the source of their beliefs and knowledge, being Cairo-Giza at Egypt – but also a connection with advanced, ancient geophysical knowledge based on the celestial pole of the Earth and its obliquity angle.
We should note that Higgins being a 32nd Degree Mason is a reliable source and so the associations he presents are not to be taken lightly, nor should they be considered a mere contrived fantasy.
There is no doubt that the Freemasons possess some remarkable factual information and knowledge about our past that goes far beyond what has been established by our mainstream scholars and what knowledge has been introduced and allowed into the curriculum of our society’s education system, and there will be more on this apparent dichotomy later.

Also this from page 16:

. . . And this from pages 200 - 201:

As the illustrative examples in his book show, again, Higgins offered many examples of these references to the angle of 23.5 degrees, taken from the earliest sources of Masonic thought and contemporary Freemasonry symbolism, and was perhaps the first and only person to do so – until now.
Higgins revealed that the angles of 23.5º and 47º (two times 23.5º) are two of Freemasonry’s “Cosmic Angles” and as we have seen, in his books he included illustrations of these angles present in ancient coins depicting pre-Christian, Phoenician temples of Cypress, as well as in ancient Greek paintings of Hermes and Ceres, amongst others.

The amazing thing is, that 47º (two times 23.5º) is the diameter of the abstract circle the Earth’s axis draws in the northern sky over a period of 26,000 years – known as the ‘Cone of Precession.’ This is the Precessional Cycle – also related to the Precession of the Equinoxes and this cycle is the result of the Earth’s tilted axis.
The miniature Keystone amulets which Higgins found during his archaeological investigations, and whose side angles are carved at 11.75º, 23.5º and also 47º, is sure evidence that the ancients not only knew about the obliquity angle of the Earth, but also knew about Precession. And if so then again, the highest-degree Masons are in possession of this knowledge, even though our mainstream historians, astronomers and geophysicists say that Precession was an unknown phenomenon before 126 BC, when the Greek astronomer and mathematician, Hipparchus first discovered it. (Again, see last section on the Preliminary page, for an explanation of Precession.)

However, what I neglected to mention earlier, is that although Higgins was perhaps the first author to bring attention to these 23.5° Earth's axis angle references in various sources throughout history, he did so while commenting on the mysteries of the “Great Pyramid of Gizeh” – revealing a once known, but now largely forgotten, historical relationship between the two.
He often wrote at length on his descriptions of ancient artifacts - the ancient keystone amulets for example - that contained both the Earth’s obliquity angle and the angles of 51.5° and 52° – again, angle values associated with the Great Pyramid’s inclined sides.

From page 16 of Higgins’ book, we find this quote which is more supporting evidence of the ‘Earth’s Axis Obliquity/Great Pyramid’ connection:

Higgins illustrates this with his own drawing of these ‘keystones’ including the dimensions he describes:

Higgins page 32

Below is my own rendition to illustrate Higgins’ description and to show more evidence of this connection between the Great Pyramid and the tilt angle of the Earth.

It may look deceiving, but the keystone is actually formed from a perfect square.


Artwork Copyright © G Osborn. 2010. All Rights Reserved

The identical significance of these keystones goes back further than six to seven thousand years? 

This is interesting because as we will see later on in these presentations, the same geometric principle expressed in these 7,000-year-old ancient keystones, which have been based on the axial inclination of the Earth to the Sun, according to Higgins’ findings ( – i.e., varying uniform side angles of 11.75°, 23.5° and the precessional diameter of 47°) – appears to have also been employed in the construction of the Great Pyramid, especially in the placement of its two internal chambers as viewed in E/W, blueprint, cross-section.
After reading these quotes from a book on Ancient Freemasonry, in which the obliquity angle of the Earth is mentioned numerous times alongside the Great Pyramid of Giza, one wouldn’t be surprised by the following revelations.

The Great Seal of the United States

The angle of 23.5º is also referenced in one of the most infamous symbols of them all – the “All-Seeing Eye” in the detached and floating capstone of the pyramid from which rays of light radiate. This symbolic image which is on every US $1 bill is really a reference to the Great Pyramid of Giza which is missing its capstone. I am perhaps the first person to discover this in 2001 and it’s amazing how people have overlooked this 23.5-degree reference. However saying this, I am also amazed at the large number of people who don’t know that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees – or that it is even tilted. One friend of mine was puzzled as to how the Earth could be tilted, as he had always thought that there was no zero-reference point in space to relate it to; no up or down, or left and right . . . unaware of the fact that the Earth is tilted in respect of the zero Ecliptic Plane – it's plane of orbit around the Sun.

In any case, the Great Seal supports what we have presented on this page; that there is indeed a connection between the angle of the Earth’s axis and the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Although there is no ‘definitive proof’ here, the examples we have seen so far presents compelling evidence that the Great Pyramid and it’s side angle of between 51 and 52 degrees is associated in some way with the Earth’s geophysics – notably the obliquity of the Earth’s axis and the Precession of the Equinoxes, and that this association was known and has already been acknowledged by certain people throughout history who have encoded this knowledge . . . and it’s easy to see why.
Let’s say that you possessed information that would be seen as “heretical”; that you understood that the stories presented in the Bible and the Gospels, and which had been adopted, adapted and promulgated by the Church, had really derived from an earlier knowledge and wisdom that was once known long ago in ancient Egypt, and perhaps even earlier.
Let’s also say that you know that the symbolic message behind the geometrical layout of Giza and that the building of the Great Pyramid contains the true meaning behind many of these stories that had been misinterpreted, misconceptualised, and over the years had become corrupted, twisted and exploited in all kinds of ways to manipulate the beliefs of the collective and attain power over the collective consciousness.
Wouldn’t you want to bring attention to this information and knowledge?
And if so, then you surely wouldn’t want to make it obvious. You would know that if you wanted to bring attention to the Great Pyramid as the source of all these mysteries, and send a message or communicate an important insight about it to those who would understand, you would only have to give reference to the angle of 52º by drawing or painting a linear object at this angle and emphasising it in such a way that is conspicuous and begging to be examined and measured.
Some of these artists were even clever and daring enough to place these angles in such a way that one could easily construct an image of the Great Pyramid that magically appears out of the painting; revealing how these angles are encoded within the ancient structure, as I will reveal in subsequent presentations.

Discovering these angles within the Great Pyramid in the first place is what brings it all together.
The fact that this impressive monument, placed as it is at the centre of the Earth’s landmasses (so it has been observed and stated many times) is pointing to its own location on the Earth, reveals, and quite unequivocally, that these angles were deliberately encoded within it and at a very early time in our history.
Thus, it appears that the angles have been passed down by tradition and encoded in many different sources.
They are the “key” to this knowledge contained within the Great Pyramid and the other monuments at Giza. Therefore the many sources that reference these angles were also meant to preserve this “key”.
Once we discover all this information within the Great Pyramid and at Giza, then we realize why the angles were encoded in paintings and other sources. Again, these sacred ‘Cosmic angles’ as I now refer to them, were passed down through tradition and from a primordial time far back in our history.
The initiate artists, who had reached a certain ‘degree’ in their knowledge, then expressed these angles (this ‘knowledge’) in their paintings.
As to the source of these references, it would be a mistake to say that the evidence points directly to the Freemasons.
We could go back further in time to the Rosicrucians, the Kabbalists and the Templars and so on through many different archaic, esoteric, arcane ‘schools of thought’ and traditions worldwide.
In essence though, it is the source of this knowledge that connects these secret societies and the knowledge has always remained the same, and so the secrets these people possess, or claim to possess, is only part of the story.

As the work of Higgins reveals, this knowledge is far older and goes way back into remote antiquity and perhaps to a lost ‘source civilisation’.
How else can we explain why the spiritual wisdom, practical knowledge and philosophies of the ancients, is in many ways far more profound and superior to anything we have today?
I am taking the reader on a journey; revealing piece by piece the evidence I had arrived at myself through my own research.
The most significant piece of evidence will come later when I reveal the angles that have remained hidden within the Great Pyramid and the monuments of Giza for centuries.

23.5°, 52° and the Golden Ratio

The following may hold the answer to the close relationship between these two angles which are found together in numerous paintings and other sources – in that they are calculably linked to the Golden Ratio or phi 1.618.

23.5 x phi 1.618 (Golden Ratio) = 38.0237987 – or round figure, 38. 90 subtract 38 = 52.

It is a fact that painters and artists used the Golden Ratio in their art, so it’s possible that this is the reason why these two angles are so repetitive; however it is difficult to see how the angles of linear items and objects were produced by this formula.

Notes and References

1. Source: Maalesh: A Theatrical Tour in the Middle East. Jean Cocteau, (Gallimard, 1949), p 37.

2. The Sion Revelation by Picknett and Prince, (Time Warner, 2006), pp. 383–384.

3. Cataclysm by Allan & Delair (Bear & Company Sep 1997).

4. Transcribed from Graham Hancock on Global Cataclysms in the ancient past. Excerpted from Mysterious Origins of Man Part 2.

5. The Generations of the Heavens and of the Earth: Egyptian Deities in the Garden of Eden by Gary Greenburg. (Presented at the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, St. Louis 1996).

6. This quote from Exploring the Great Pyramid (2005) by Dr. Robert M. Schoch, is one of many examples I have heard, seen or read, where someone refers to the Great Pyramid as the "head of Osiris", and this is not just a fanciful observation.


“On the airplane from Cairo to New York the next day, my head filled with ancient dreams, I thought of what my Egyptian friend Emil Shaker had told me. Looking at a map of Egypt, the outlines of the country can be compared to a person, or more specifically the resurrected person in the form of Osiris, with raised and outstretched arms. The head of Osiris is the Great Pyramid, the body and legs are the Nile stretching to the south, the delta is the up-stretched arms that touch the Mediterranean Sea, which represents the sky”.

7. Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology by Frank C. Higgins (1919). p.105.

8. Ibid. p. 229.

9. Ibid. p. 26.

10 Ibid. p. 16.

11. Ibid. pp. 200 - 201.

12. Ibid. p. 16.

13. Ibid. p. 16.

14. Ibid. pp. 427–428.

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