As we can see, the angles are mostly always precise, and those that aren’t are very close and close enough for us to conclude that the artist intended the Cross to be at these specific angles.


In the Louvre Museum, Paris, there are several ink drawings on this theme:

In the drawing, “Jesus succumbing to the weight of the cross, close to St. Veronica” by Alessandro Algardi, we see two crosses – one at the angle of 51.5° and the other cross and its crossbeam both at the inverse angle of 38°.


Again, with a similar title, “Jesus succumbing to the weight of the cross”, is an ink drawing by Giacomo Cavedone, crossbeam 23° and soldier's spear at 52°. And in another ink drawing by Lodovico Carracci, The Carrying of the Cross, there are two crosses – one at 23.5°, and both crossbeams at 52°.  

‘Christ Carrying the Cross’ by Hieronymus Bosch (1490) – cross between 51° and 52°.

Same title by Marco d’ Oggiono (1495-1500) – both beams 51°.

Same title by Bartolome Esteban Murillo (1617-82) – cross between 52° and 53°.


Moving to relatively modern times, there are a set of engraved reliefs by Eric Gill (1882–1940) on the ‘Station of the Cross’ now on display in St. Albans Church. In two of these, ‘He Falls the First Time’ and ‘He Meets His Mother’ – the cross is between 23° and 23.5°.

We find the same angles in a painting on this theme dating from 1925 by Krishen Khanna – Christ Carrying His Cross. Like the Hans Holbein woodcut, the cross is 23.5° and the crossbeam is 38 degrees - the inverse of 52°. (See images below).


And finally, I was most surprised to find a ‘Gouache’ sketch by the famous Spanish artist Salvador Dali, dating from 1964 to 1967 from the Biblia Sacra, published in 1969 by Rizzoli of Rome, titled, Jesus Carrying the Cross . . . the cross is at 52 degrees.


























These are just a few of the hundreds of examples I have discovered over the last ten years. Again, for those who are familiar with the Great Pyramid, the angle of 52° identifies and points to it immediately, and one would be hard pressed to find some other relevance with this particular angle.


One would then try to get to the bottom of this mystery, as to why this angle which identifies the Great Pyramid of Giza, turns up almost habitually in so many of these paintings – especially those related by theme.

The obvious questions one would ask is: if these angles are alluding to the Great Pyramid, then what does the Great Pyramid have to do with the Earth’s obliquity angle of 23.5° and the Crucifixion? 

And for that matter, why are these angles so frequent in the paintings featuring John the Baptist, Mary Magdalene and Jesus?


The Gospels are cleverly-conceived, allegorical stories. Initially, and before they were adopted by the Church, the Gospels were written specifically for the purpose of conveying profound esoteric, mystical and metaphysical knowledge to those who could understand them. For example, and as we will see later, there are many metaphorical and allegorical allusions to the internal, physiological and psychical processes associated with the illumination or enlightenment experience known by the Hindus as kundalinī, and which I have noted in my research.


Although it is not a subject that the majority of us will be familiar with, and its true that most researchers into ancient mysteries tend to avoid the subject, it must be said that the Kundalini phenomenon or ‘enlightenment experience’ (which is referred to in the Bible as Kardia, and in many other historical texts under different names and terms), is indeed a factual, real, and well-documented phenomenon - and although rare, has been an important part of the human experience worldwide and is said to be necessary for our own evolution.


In all accounts this phenomenon has been the ‘religious impulse’ of man throughout history and is ultimately behind everything that has ever been written or symbolised in one form or another. Therefore for those of us who are familiar with it and have even experienced it, one wouldn’t be surprised if this phenomenon was related in some way with the enigmatic monuments at Giza, based on early shamanic experience, and it must be said that some of what I have researched does indeed point to this conclusion as I will reveal in the course of these presentations. It is time this connection was acknowledged.


In any case, the spiritual aspect to all this really cannot be avoided when we consider Ancient Egyptians beliefs and the philosophies of the oldest ‘mystery schools,’ esoteric organisations and traditions – especially those associated with Masonic, Rosicrucian and Kabbalistic thought, who assigned great importance to the Giza pyramids and in particular the Great Pyramid through their mysticism.


My aim is to present an explanation, or offer my own interpretation regarding the motives of those who encoded these angles, and it is in the Masonic, Rosicrucian, Templar and Kabbalistic sources that we find the most intriguing information on the Giza monuments; information that appears to tie-in well with my research into these encoded references, and indeed they offer some answers to the mystery.

Figure 4

“Throughout the Euphrates region are found the first evidences of the cultivation of Masonry in a purely symbolic or speculative sense in the existence of innumerable miniature stone amulets cut in the sacred geometrical dimensions principal among them being the keystone, discovered during my investigations of the ancient sepulchres of that region. These little keystones, each of which is pierced for suspension, are made of the same stones of the famous Babylonian cylinder seals and are cut at the uniform angle of 23½ degrees, that of the inclination of the axis of the earth to the pole of the ecliptic. There are also double keystones of 47 degrees and both are but miniatures of the conical ‘Bethels’ reverenced by the primitive Jehovah worshippers of the East”.

Figure 12.

Some researchers and authors are convinced that the name Cairo, given to the capital city of Egypt, some 10 miles east of Giza, was based on the name Chi-rho as given to this Christian monogram or symbol. Why a Muslim city should have the same name as given to this Christian symbol really doesn’t make sense.


Here’s what Frank C. Higgins has to say on this Chi-Rho/Cairo connection:

Many of us would just see the pointing finger, not realising that the angle of the finger also plays a crucial part in the significance of what is being pointed at here, in that it provides an additional clue, and one from which one can make further connections.


Knowing that we are dealing with the same code we find in the paintings of John the Baptist based on the angles of pointing fingers, one is compelled to make a connection here with the Baptist and again, St. Jerome was an expert on Holy relics.


Is this the head or skull of the Baptist?


If it is, then we are required to make the connection with Osiris who has also been equated with Adam.


These paintings may be in reference to St. Jerome’s stated belief that Jerusalem and the Hill of Golgotha – the “place of the skull” (Adam’s skull) and where Jesus was crucified, is located at the Centre of the Earth, as indicated by the angle of the finger which appears to be representing the Earth’s axis.


However there are other sources that tell us that the real and original “place of the skull” is Giza – symbolised by the Great Pyramid, recognised by many to be the original Omphalos at the centre of the world.


Throughout my many years of research into the esoteric traditions, there have been several times when I have heard, seen or read somewhere, a reference made to the Great Pyramid as representing the head of the god Osiris.


Such things are not often openly stated and only an initiate would understand that the River Nile represents the spine or backbone of Osiris and that the Great Pyramid represents his head or skull, as well as the occulted ‘third eye’.


Although the trail is a convoluted one, it is interesting that in our endeavour to make some sense of these angle references, we find that the trail always leads back to the Egyptian gods and also Giza and the Great Pyramid, and this is true with the next theme of our enquiry.

Many of us agree that this is what we are dealing with here with the additional information we are given in these numerous encoded sources, however, in the ancient mind, astronomical phenomena and the celestial cycles which they mapped and charted using the positions of certain stars, were also seen to be related to our collective human consciousness, and so because the earth being inclined from the ecliptic plane of the Sun was seen as an unnatural and inharmonious condition and possibly the result of a major global cataclysm in the past, it’s also possible that the spiritual and religious side to all this is really based on man’s belief that 1), this cataclysm was related in some way with the consciousness of man, and 2), the wish to reverse this situation, and this is something we will also examine – beginning with the connections I will present in the remainder of this page.


In any case, all the elements which have been encoded in these many sources throughout history appear to be leading us back to ancient Egypt and Giza, as if revealing the true meaning behind the stories presented in the Gospels - many parts of which were omitted and suppressed, while other parts were adopted, adapted and promulgated by those behind the inauguration of the Church for the instigation of power which was successfully established, reinforced and implemented throughout Europe for many centuries. By all accounts this was indeed a long period of human darkness, often filled with death, conflict, apprehension and fear.  


Going back to these 23.5° references in the paintings, it appears we are being told that there is a relevant connection between the Crucifixion Cross and the Earth’s Axis.

As mentioned earlier, it’s been said that the Djed (backbone-spine) of Osiris also represented the shamanic axis mundi, ‘world tree’ or cosmic axis and therefore the Earth’s axis. So following logic and because it is commonly believed now that Jesus was based on earlier ‘resurrection gods’ (especially Osiris), it’s only logical that the Cross of Christ would also represent the Earth’s axis, and in the event that both the Djed of Osiris and the Cross of Jesus were raised up at a specific time of the year on and around the Spring Equinox.


But what is more perplexing here, is the apparent connection between the Great Pyramid and the ‘Hill of Golgotha,’ which by logical deduction means that the Great Pyramid in some way, also represents the human skull . . .


The hill was said to contain Adam’s skull. There are paintings of Jesus on the cross; his blood flowing down from his hands and feet and dividing into four streams that flow over the skull at the base of the cross.


The skull of course symbolises the name given to the hill known as Golgotha – the “place of the skull” – also known as Calvary.

The name ‘Calvary’ is from the Latin calvaria, which again means ‘Skull.’ Calvaria is a translation of the Greek Kranion which means ‘cranium’ – being the upper domelike portion of the skull . . . the roof of the skull.


“And when they came to the place which is called The Skull, there they crucified him,

and the criminals, one on the right and one on the left”.

Luke, 23.33.


As noted earlier, the skull features prominently in the Vanitas paintings, which also include various linear items and rectangular objects angled the same as the obliquity of the Earth’s axis.


However, what hadn’t been mentioned is that certain linear objects at the angle of 52° (and its inverse of 38°) is also a recurrent feature in these Vanitas paintings and are almost as common as the 23.5° angle references.

Again, the best examples are by 17th century Dutch painters, David Bailly and Evert Collier.

Collier’s paintings are particularly special as they not only include these two angles, but more significant angles associated with the geodetic relationship the Great Pyramid has with the Earth - it being an ancient monument in which this geophysical/geodetic knowledge has been encoded, as we will see.


As mentioned, the skull is always present in the paintings of Mary Magdalene along with the Crucifix which is often at the same angle, and there are numerous other sources that feature a skull.

For example, the skull is the main focus in the ‘Arcadian Shepherd’ paintings made famous by the phrase, “ET IN ARCADIA EGO” painted by 17th century artists Guercino and Poussin and these we will return to later.

But one source that may provide a few more clues, and especially at this stage in our enquiry, are the paintings on the theme of St. Jerome.

“The ‘Three Wise Men’ is the French-term for the three stars we know as Orion’s Belt . . . There was a media sensation when Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert’s The Orion Mystery was published in 1994, arguing that the three pyramids of Giza were built specifically to represent Orion’s Belt. Yet here we have Cocteau, in 1949, apparently taking the connection for granted! And he also describes the Sphinx as a ‘watch dog’, while half a century later Robert Temple, in his 1998 revision of The Sirius Mystery, proposed that the Great Sphinx of Giza was originally a representation of the Jackal-Headed god Anubis. Presumably thanks to the influence of Schwaller de Lubicz, Cocteau was remarkably ahead of his time’.

“In the sky lies the unharnessed Wain, shafts pointing upwards, Strange stopping place! The Three Wise Men have struck their tents of stone, stretched from base to point, one side in the shadow and the other three smoothed by the moon. They sleep while their dog lies awake. Their watch dog is the Sphinx”.

The angle of 52° is repeated in the sword angles of the soldiers sitting at the feet of the cross playing a game of dice.

What are these same two angles doing in a miniature of the Crucifixion from 586 AD?

Who placed them there?


Above the head of the soldier thrusting the 23-degree angled spear into Christ’s right side is the name ΛΟΓΙΝΟC (LOGINOS).

This miniature is unique because this is one of the earliest records of the name. Strange then that both these angles should appear in one of the earliest sources on this theme.


For those who would say this is merely a coincidence, try drawing lines randomly and see how many times you match exactly the angle of 23° or 52°. You would find that you perhaps come close a few times, and perhaps only once in a hundred or more. But to have matched both these angles exactly and in the first attempt would be next to impossible and way beyond chance.


Another interesting painting is again Christ on the Cross between the Two Thieves (1620), by Peter Paul Rubens (Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp). I have already presented this painting (See here, figure 6) revealing the 23.5 angles; however what I didn't mention, is the fact that there is also a 52-degree angle in the painting . . .

Its an interesting one because the top of the spear piercing Christ’s right side tapers off at 23.5°. And as if to confirm this angle, in the foreground is a ladder resting against the cross of one of the thieves. Beginning from the bottom, the back of the ladder on the side nearest us, tapers upwards at this same angle.

As if to press home the point (pardon the pun), at the top left of the painting there are two more spears – one at the angle of 23.5°, (as I already showed), and the other at the angle of 52° – all angles exact and precise.









































In the painting Joseph of Arimathea Catches the Blood of Christ in the Communion Cup, the Holy Grail by Franz Stassen (1869-1949), the spear of Longinus is at the exact angle of 51°.




























And finally in a painting on the same theme titled The Crucifixion With The Madonna, Saint John The Evangelist And Longinus Below (artist and year unknown), the spear is again at the exact angle of 23.5°.



































Why is both the Earth's axis angle and the Great Pyramid angle being referenced - sometimes together -  in these paintings?


What is the relationship between the two?


It is common knowledge that the constellation of Orion represented the ‘resurrection god’ of many cultures, and in Egypt this was the god Osiris as well as his son and reincarnated self, Horus – upon both of whom the story of Jesus Christ was largely based, as is believed.

So, the connection is quite valid if we consider the possibility that the Giza/Orion correlation was secretly known to the initiates who wrote the Gospels.

And why shouldn’t this be a possibility?


It is well known that the three belt stars of Orion are known as the “three wise men”, and in the Gospels the “three wise men” follow the nearby star of Sirius of Canis Major (known as the “dog star”) to the birthplace of Jesus.

The connotations of this are interesting indeed and one suspects a fine ‘gossamer thread’ of an even deeper truth running through the narrative of this particular part of the Gospel story.


Here’s a quote from Jean Cocteau’s journal in which he reflects on his night time visit to the pyramids of Giza.


Figure 5: Christ Carrying the Cross by Jacopo Tintoretto Robusti  (c. 1565–1567).


In a woodcut titled Christ and the Cross by Hans Holbein the Younger (c. 1520-1540,  Kunstmuseum Basel), the top edge of the cross is exactly 23.5°, while the centre of the crossbeam is 38° from the horizontal and/or 52° from the vertical..

Christ Bearing the Cross by Marco Palmezzano, (c. 1535) – cross at 52° from the horizontal and crossbeam at inverse 52° from the vertical. (See image on right above).

Christ Carrying the Cross (c. 1542) by Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan, (c. 1542); the cross is inverse 38° - again 52° from the vertical and the crossbeam 52° from the horizontal.

In a painting with the same title by Luis de Morales 1566, the cross is between 52° and 54°.


And in another painting with the same title (c. 1565–1567) by Jacopo Tintoretto Robusti, we see all three crosses being carried uphill by Jesus and the two thieves who were crucified with Jesus and on either side of him, each at the angle of 51 degrees – one of the crosses being the inverse of this angle at 39° from the horizontal and/or 52° from the vertical.

I should remind the reader that the Great Pyramid’s side angles are between 51° and 52° – precise figure, 51.84° and in arc minutes 51°.5'.

For example, in a Triptych of Christ carrying the cross by Via Dolorosa, (Master of Saint Veronica), c. 1410, the cross is at 52 degrees.

In the miniature on vellum titled, The Carrying of the Cross by Hugo Woerden van Jansz, (c. 1490-1497), the angle of the cross is 47° (2 x 23.5° = 47°), and the crossbeam is exactly 52°.


In Christ carrying the cross by Ambrogio Bergognone, painted in 1501, this time we find the crossbeam angled at exactly 52°.

In another painting (c. 1515) titled Christ carrying the cross, (Italian school, artist unknown) the cross is leaning at precisely 23.5° and the crossbeam is 38° – inverse of 52° as from the vertical. (See images below).

Washington’s sword is angled at exactly 23.5 degrees and so again, we have another reference to the present obliquity of the Earth’s axis. His feet are also angled at 23.5° aligned with the square pattern on the carpet which is also at the same angle – as is the arm of the ornate chair and a few other minor details.


But look at the index finger of Washington’s left hand which is pointing straight down – the opposite direction to the upright ‘John Gesture’. Why isn’t the finger pointing upwards if this vertical position of the forefinger is only related to the Kingdom of God?


Well as we can see, Washington’s right index finger on his outstretched hand is pointing horizontally – i.e., perpendicular (90 degrees)  to the left index finger which is pointing downwards – creating a square or cross . . . which means this can only be related to the square Ecliptic Cross of the Sun.


George Washington appears to be telling us that he is upright and balanced – i.e., “On the level” or “On the square” . . . (a Masonic phrase.) However, again, his sword, which is a symbol relating to many things, like authority and power, but is also a symbol of conflict and war, is tilted at 23.5 degrees.


It is also interesting that from the bottom left corner of the painting to the centre of the cross, the angle is exactly 52 degrees; and that from the centre of the cross to the hilt-button of the sword is again exactly 52°. Where the columns taper outward at the base, the angles are again 52°.

There is also much evidence to suggest that the Jesus story as told in the Gospels is largely astrotheological, and that the story also contains many elements that point to the astronomical alignments observed at Giza and the tracking of the constellation of Orion, as well as the shadow phenomena associated with the Great Pyramid during the Equinoxes and Solstices as first put forward by author Peter Lemesurier in his book The Great Pyramid Decoded, (Element, 1996).


Below left, we are shown how the southern shaft of the King’s chamber in the Great Pyramid was once aligned with the Star Al-Nitak of Orion as it crossed the Giza Meridian, according to Robert Bauval’s OCT (Orion Correlation theory).

Bauval’s theory is that the diagonal layout pattern of all three pyramids mirror the three belt stars of Orion and will only align properly with these three stars as they would have been seen over 12,500 years ago.

Figure 7: The Osiris Constellation of Sah or Orion (Orionis) and the Crucifixion of Jesus

(Left): Orion shown crossing the south sky – the star Al Nitak in the right side of Orion targeted by the Southern Shaft of the Great Pyramid from the King’s Chamber. (The star Sirius is in front of Orion’s extended right foot and the River Nile reflects the same “river” of stars in the Milky Way, the “sky river” considered by the ancient Egyptians to be the “Celestial Nile” and their spiritual “water of life”).

(Right): The spear of the Roman soldier, Longinus piercing Christ’s right side at the angle of 52°.

This is my own rendition of a medieval illustration, (source unknown).

Note the Knight whose index finger is pointing close to 23 degrees and also the Triad of the three Marys, each with a Halo surrounding their heads.

The more I researched into these angle references; more remarkable data began to present itself.

I found that the angle of 52 degrees is also referenced and quite explicitly in these same sources and is almost as frequent as the angle of 23.5°.

This was interesting because the significant thing about the angle of 52º is that this is the all-round figure often cited in reference to the inclined sides of the Great Pyramid of Giza . . .


Before we continue it would help if we familiarise ourselves with some of the basic factual details about the Great Pyramid.


Below is my own cross-section diagram of the Great Pyramid, drawn 'to scale' and based on the accepted measurements as recorded by William Flinders Petrie during his survey of the pyramid between 1880 and 1882.

The Great Pyramid Angle

Copyright © G Osborn. 2008. All Rights Reserved

Gary Osborn

1. Source: Maalesh: A Theatrical Tour in the Middle East. Jean Cocteau, (Gallimard, 1949), p 37.


2. The Sion Revelation by Picknett and Prince, (Time Warner, 2006), pp. 383–384.


3.  Cataclysm by Allan & Delair (Bear & Company Sep 1997).


4. Transcribed from Graham Hancock on Global Cataclysms in the ancient past. Excerpted from Mysterious Origins of Man Part 2.


5. The Generations of the Heavens and of the Earth: Egyptian Deities in the Garden of Eden by Gary Greenburg. (Presented at the annual meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, St. Louis 1996).


6. This quote from Exploring the Great Pyramid (2005) by Dr. Robert M. Schoch, is one of many examples I have heard, seen or read, where someone refers to the Great Pyramid as the "head of Osiris", and this is not just a fanciful observation.




“On the airplane from Cairo to New York the next day, my head filled with ancient dreams, I thought of what my Egyptian friend Emil Shaker had told me. Looking at a map of Egypt, the outlines of the country can be compared to a person, or more specifically the resurrected person in the form of Osiris, with raised and outstretched arms. The head of Osiris is the Great Pyramid, the body and legs are the Nile stretching to the south, the delta is the up-stretched arms that touch the Mediterranean Sea, which represents the sky”.


7. Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology by Frank C. Higgins (1919). p.105.


8. Ibid. p. 229.


9. Ibid. p. 26.


10 Ibid. p. 16.


11. Ibid. pp. 200 - 201.


12. Ibid. p. 16.


13. Ibid. p. 16.


14. Ibid. pp. 427–428.




Notes and References

The Spear of Longinus and What it is Pointing to . . .



As described in the Gospel of John, the spear that pierces Christ’s right side as he hangs from the cross and at a specific and significant time of the year (the first Full Moon after the Spring Equinox), may be an encoded reference to this southern shaft alignment – again at a specific time of the year (Spring Equinox) – therefore indicating the importance of the Great Pyramid, what it was built for and what secrets it may contain about our past.


This connection is all the more intriguing when we look at other art sources on this theme.

Conserved in the Laurentian Library, Florence, is a miniature from the Rabula Gospels dating from the year 586 AD. It shows Jesus being pierced by two spears.

The spear being thrust into Christ’s right side is at the exact angle of 23° and the other being thrust into his chest from the opposite direction is at the exact angle of 52°.

The Angle of 52° and the Crucifixion

Artwork: Copyright © Gary Osborn. 2010. All Rights Reserved

Figure 2:  The Journey to Calvary by the Venetian artist Jacopo Bassano (c.1538).

The cross is angled at 23.5º (Earth’s Axis) and the cross beam at 52º (Great Pyramid).

We should note that like Leonardo Da Vinci, Jean Cocteau (July 5, 1889 – October 11, 1963), who was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager, playwright, artist and filmmaker, was also cited as a Grand Master of the Prieuré du Sion, which implicates him as an ‘initiate into the mysteries’ – and would anyone  think anything less of Cocteau?

But there is additional evidence based on good research that Cocteau was also a member of the mysterious Angelic Society, as was Nicolas Poussin and others so it has been said. Another name for this society was Le Brouillard, meaning “mist”, “fog” or “clouds” . . . meaning a society obviously clouded in mystery.


While working on an article, author and investigative journalist Filip Coppens and I looked into the possibility that members of the Angelic Society, many of whom were prominent painters, poets, composers, writers etc., and notably active between the 16th and 18th century – were also responsible for many of these references to the angle of 23.5 degrees, as well as these references to the Great Pyramid (side angles of 52 degrees), also Giza and Orion – and all based on what appears to be an ancient tradition of knowledge that had been passed down through the centuries via the ‘underground stream’ that has its source in Arcadia – a name associated with the ‘Golden Age’ – and the ancient Egyptian Zep Tepi, meaning “the First Time”. All is entirely feasible and possible as we will see.


In their book, The Sion Revelation (2006), Picknett and Prince have this to say about the above quote from Jean Cocteau’s journal, which they also include in their book:

St. Jerome and the Skull

These rather tenuous connections between Giza, Orion and the Spear of Longinus, and strengthened only by these angles and some fragmentary correlating evidence, may all turn out to be wild supposition and considered as such, but I present it if only to inspire interest and hopefully encourage further exploration on this idea that the Gospels contain certain symbolic elements that point to the astronomical alignments observed at Giza and that these alignments are also linked with certain spiritual beliefs and concepts relating to resurrection,  rebirth, higher states of consciousness and how to attain profound spiritual truths through self-enlightenment.


It’s possible that certain astronomical alignments and observed cyclical and celestial phenomena were seen to reflect the same processes in human consciousness which were then anthropomorphised into gods and heroes and then mythologized to convey truths and instruct the initiate into the mysteries associated with human existence and the life beyond.

As we find with the ancient art of Astrology, it was believed that the macrocosm of the starry heavens reflected what was happening on Earth and in the microcosm of man and vice-versa, and so there were also practical reasons why the heavens were mapped and constantly observed.


Going back to the Longinus miniature, because the angles presented are particularly significant and have a connection, in that the Earth’s obliquity angle is an intrinsic one within the angle geometry of the Great Pyramid of 52° sides, one has to conclude that with the placing of both these angles together, especially in an illustration on this theme, that the artist was perhaps alluding to a deeper connection between the Great Pyramid, the knowledge of celestial motions relating to the Earth’s geophysics, the Orion constellation, the Crucifixion and the Spear of Longinus.


Perhaps these connections really are associated with charting the Cycle of Precession as a result of the Earth’s axis at 23.5°, using Orion as a gauge marker – i.e., the shaft (spear) which exits the Great Pyramid and targets the star Al Nitak – the first of the three belt stars of Orion (Osiris-Horus-Jesus) and at a specific point of time in the cycle.

Again, all this may be ‘wild supposition’, especially in sources that date to the 6th century AD, but regarding the fact that these angles are clearly evident and precise in many works of art expressing themes that are associative, it’s the only explanation that checks all the boxes.


According to Robert Bauval, the ancient Egyptians did indeed chart the Cycle of Precession using the star Al-Nitak of Orion as a gauge marker, and the reason why could be that "Precession is a post cataclysmic phenomenon"     as geoscientists Allan and Delair have stated in their book Cataclysm.


In other words, we are being told that the present obliquity (tilt angle) of the Earth wasn’t always its condition and was therefore believed to be unnatural: And perhaps because it was observed that somewhere or ‘somewhen’ in the Precessional Cycle of 26,000 years, the same cataclysmic events that tilted the Earth from an upright position and which set the cycle in motion in the first place, are repeated.


Author and researcher Graham Hancock has this to say:

There exists a collection of paintings from the 16th century on the theme of St. Jerome.

Three of these were painted by famous German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528), and several by Joos van Cleve (1485–1541).


We are told that St. Jerome, who lived between 331 and 420 AD, was an expert on Holy relics and sure enough, in these paintings he is often surrounded by all kinds of paraphernalia – not just relics, but also measuring instruments, compasses and books.


But the strange thing about these paintings – and it couldn’t be any more obvious that we are dealing with a code here – is that St. Jerome is often shown in the same posture: sitting in front of a skull, which is either upright or over to its side on the table, and like the paintings of John the Baptist that were produced in the same period, St. Jerome is pointing directly at the centre of the skull . . . his index finger at the angle of 23.5 degrees.


Below are three examples from the aforementioned artists and from the same period.


Figure 14: The Chi-Rho monogram.

The symbols on either side are the Greek letters A and Ω – signifying the Alpha-Omega (Beginning and End – Past and Future)

which are united in the ‘Eternal Now’ represented by the center of the cross.


Earlier, we learned that the ‘XP’ in the Latin characters, SIGILLUM MILITUM XPISTI, which is inscribed on the Templar Seal, is a reference to the Chi-Rho symbol of Christ.

“The characteristic crosses of the Knights Templar, which are faithfully reproduced by the modern Masonic fraternity, are not Calvary crosses, or the type signifying the supreme drama of Christian faith, but four-fold triangles joined at the apexes, the same being identical with a form highly symbolic throughout the ancient East from a period as remote as several thousand years before Christ. They are shown in company with representations of the sun, moon and stars and various zodiacal signs suspended from the necks of the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian monarchs. They are in fact, flattened pyramids and possess the same significance.”     (My emphasis).

We can see then, the Templar cross is really formed from a three-dimensional pyramid which seems to have been cut down the edges and opened outwards into a flat, two-dimensional image.

That the Templar Cross design was based on the pyramid is again confirmed by 32nd Degree Mason, Frank C. Higgins, from his book, Ancient Freemasonry (1919), which I shall quote again:

Transformation: From Pyramid to Templar Cross

Figure 16: Ancient and Masonic Keystones from Ancient Freemasonry by Frank C. Higgins (1919).


Quote from page 26 of Frank C. Higgins' book Ancient Freemasonry:




Figure 17: The Geometrical Characteristics and Proportions of the Masonic Keystone.


The Latin inscription, SVA SIDERA NORVNT translates as “His own constellations have acknowledged him” - which appears to have been taken from Virgil's Aeneid, Book 6.


This image was also used for the reverse side of a silver medal now in the British Museum dated 1742. We are told this medal was actually created in Rome and on the orders of the Pope, to commemorate the visit to Rome by the English Antiquary Martin Folkes (1690–1754) in 1733. A ‘bust’ image of Folkes in profile and resembling the Roman Emperors, is featured on the obverse. See here.


Obstensibly, the pyramid in the medal was made to depict the pyramidical tomb of Caius Sestius within the walls of Rome.

However the image remains symbolically connected to the Great Pyramid and the Giza plateau, as suggested by the Sphinx in the foreground with its composite symbolism of a Lion, Bull, Man and Eagle (see talon protruding from from the hindleg) each of which relates to the four fixed signs of the Zodiac - Leo, Taurus, Aquarius, Scorpio.

In the book I co-authored with Scott Creighton, The Giza Prophecy, Scott and I reveal how the beginning/end and halfway points of the Precessional Cycle, as relate to the Zodiac Ages of Leo (Lion) and Aquarius (Man) - two of the four fixed signs which are clearly referenced in the composite imagery of the Sphinx at Giza - has been encoded within the arrangement of the Giza monuments.

Its possible, and evidence exists that ancient knowledge associated with the Giza Precessional Wheel, as Scott and I call it, has been preserved and passed down through history - encoded in various symbolic sources - one of these sources being the Tarot and another Freemasonry, and so its no surprise to find references to this knowledge in sources like the Masonic Emblem and Commemoration Medal we see here.































Apparently, Folkes was held in high esteem in Rome, the “city of antiquities” and it was around this time that he was made a member of the French Academy.

At the age of 23, Folkes was appointed a member of the Royal Society by its president Sir Isaac Newton in 1716. He then became its Vice President in 1723 and then President from 1741 to 1752. Folkes was also a Freemason and a member of the Lodges in London and Norwich and became Deputy Grand Master from 1724 to 1725. See here.


It would appear that the reverse image of the commemorative medal was based on the Masonic Emblem of the London Lodge to which Folkes belonged, and perhaps unknowingly the reference to the angle of 23.5° was overlooked.


There are other significant angles present in this emblem - the same angles that exist within the angle geometry of the Great Pyramid - which supports my view that the pyramid on this medal is really pointing to the Great Pyramid and the geophysical/geodetic information encoded within it. I will reveal these angles later.


The above is not surprising, as Frank C. Higgins revealed many years ago in his publications that the Freemasons also encoded the obliquity angle of the Earth in their symbolism; but to find it on pyramids, alluding to the Great Pyramid in particular, reveals there is a profound connection here.


And if there are any doubts that the Earth’s obliquity angle was profoundly significant to the Freemasons, and for reasons we have yet to discover, again, there is an unmistakeable 23.5-degree reference in this painting of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart (1796) which now hangs in the White House.

Figure 21: George Washington (the “Landsdowne” portrait) by Gilbert Stuart, 1796. Brooklyn Museum.  

(© 2008 Smithsonian Institution, Courtesy, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, D.C.)



. . . All Roads Lead to Giza

As we see in the paintings below, the angle of 52° appears quite explicitly along with the angle of 23.5° in paintings on the theme of the Crucifixion – and especially those that depict Jesus carrying the tilted cross on the path up to the ‘Hill of Golgotha’ the “Place of the Skull”.

There are literally dozens of these paintings featuring these two angles (too many to include here) and both angles are presented in the same way; often with the main beam of the cross at one of these angles and the crossbeam at the other, or both at the same angle - as we find with the 23.5° Crucifixion references we have already looked at.

I think it right to list a few of these finds with references so that the reader can check them if need be.

Website Figure 6

Figure 3:  Left: Crucifixion by Fra Angelico (1395-1455) Again, 38° is the inverse of 52°.

Right: a contemporary painting of the “Hill of Golgotha” (“Place of the Skull”), (artist unknown).

The artist is clever in concealing a few secrets amidst all the humour; that the hill of Golgotha is the Great Pyramid and that it really represents the skull – and possibly that of Osiris.

(Note the ghostly image of Osiris, bottom right, representing the spinal cord or column).


Figure 1

Figure 4:  Left: Christ carrying the cross by Ambrogio Bergognone, 1501. (National Gallery, London)

Centre: Christ carrying the cross, c. 1515 (Italian school, artist unknown). (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria).

Right: Christ Bearing the Cross by Marco Palmezzano, c. 1535 (Vatican Picture Library).


Figure 3 Orion Figure 5 Figure 6

Figure 8: Miniature from the Rabula Gospels (586 AD).

Figure 9: Christ on the Cross between the Two Thieves (1620) by Peter Paul Rubens (Koninklijk Museum, Antwerp).

Figure 8

Figure 10: Joseph of Arimathea Catches the Blood of Christ in the Communion Cup, the Holy Grail by Franz Stassen (1869-1949).

Figure 9

Figure 11: The Crucifixion With The Madonna, Saint John The Evangelist And Longinus Below. (French School. Artist and year unknown).


“It’s pretty clear to me from the evidence that a common legacy of architectural knowledge was passed down from remote prehistory and spread out in widely scattered locations around the world.

Ask yourself this: If you belong to a high civilisation that has almost been completely obliterated by a gigantic geological cataclysm; a movement of the crust of the earth . . . what would you set out to do in the future? First of all, you would set out to create buildings that were extremely stable, that would survive the worst imaginable earthquake, and that’s what we find in these fingerprints of a lost architectural knowledge all around the world: a fixation and desire to create buildings that would last forever, no matter what happened to them.

And another thing that we find is a focus on trying to predict when the cataclysm will recur. What has come down to us from the ancient past seems to be a message, that by a close study of astronomical phenomena, it is possible to predict when the earth will again be visited by this all destroying cataclysm”.

Figure 10

Figure 12: Left: St. Jerome in his Cell by Albrecht Durer (1521).

There are other 23.5° angles in this painting: measuring the angle of the teeth, the skull is laying at a perpendicular 23.5°, angle and from our perspective, the right edge of the book is also 23.5°, as is the arm of Jesus on the Crucifix.

Centre: St. Jerome in His Study by Joos van Cleve, (1520 - 1525). There are other angles in this painting - for example, a book leaning at the 52-degree inverse of 38 degrees.

Right: Detail from St. Jerome in His Study by Joos van Cleve, (1524–1530).



Figure 11

Figure 13: The Pyramid and the Templar Cross

Artwork Copyright © G Osborn. 2006. All Rights Reserved


This reference to the Great Pyramid of Giza in the Templar Cross – along with the tilted Earth’s axis encoded in the Maltese Cross as shown in Figure 17 on this page – are more clues and supporting evidence as to the revelations about the Great Pyramid – especially concerning the geophysical and geodetic information I have discovered within its angular, four-sided structure.

The ‘truth’ as known by the Freemasons and the Templars before them, including other related secret societies, has been ‘out there’ all the time and everyone has overlooked it.


Indeed, the Templar Cross appears to be telling us that this connection with the Great Pyramid as well as ancient knowledge of the geophysical nature of the Earth – i.e., its inclined axial rotation – exists. However the Templars have always been associated with the ‘Temple of Solomon,’ so could it be that the Great Pyramid is, and has always been, the original Temple?


This will perhaps always remain an enigma, and what we see here is perhaps due more to the likelihood that the knowledge of the Templars and the knowledge contained within the  Great Pyramid, each stem from the same source and this is what connects them – but it’s worth mentioning in view of the above, and there are other connections . . .

XP . . . Chi-Rho

‘A still more wonderful symbol of these old cosmic speculations is found in the famous monogram XP, “chi rho,” which is the origin of the name of the modern city near which the pyramid stands – Cairo. [Corrupted by the Arabs to “El Kahiryeh”] This monogram, although placed on the labarum, or standard, of Constantine the Great, in accordance with a vision, appears on Egyptian coins of the Ptolemys and on Indian coins several hundred years B.C. It is the old Sanskrit word “Rch,” meaning “light,” and the Egyptian derivative meaning “Ch R” or Horus, the animating spirit of the earth, “Horus of the Pole” and “Horus of the Two Horizons”, so he is called’.


Higgins’ statement that the XP, “Chi-Rho” derives from the Sanskrit word “Rch” meaning “Light” is especially meaningful, in light of what I have presented thus far. His statement too that the ancient Egyptian derivative is “Ch R” for Horus, is significant and supports the belief that Jesus “the Christ” was based on the pagan Horus “the KRST” – the son and reincarnation of Osiris the ‘resurrection god’.


Also, the epithets given to Horus – “of the Pole” – “of the Two Horizons” – as mentioned in the quote by Higgins, shows an astrotheological connection between the shamanic/pagan ‘resurrection god’ (e.g., Osiris, Horus,) and the Earth’s axis, as well as the rising and setting positions of the Sun as it moves back and forth between its extreme solstice positions on the horizon.

We will return to this later.


These associations, even if they be considered vague and convoluted, reveals a relationship – not only between the Templars and the source of their beliefs and knowledge, being Cairo-Giza at Egypt – but also a connection with advanced, ancient geophysical knowledge based on the celestial pole of the Earth and its obliquity angle.


We should note that Higgins being a 32nd Degree Mason is a reliable source and so the associations he presents are not to be taken lightly, nor should they be considered a mere contrived fantasy.

There is no doubt that the Freemasons possess some remarkable factual information and knowledge about our past that goes far beyond what has been established by our mainstream scholars and what knowledge has been introduced and allowed into the curriculum of our society’s education system, and there will be more on this apparent dichotomy later.

The Masonic Keystone and the Earth's Obliquity Angle

“The actual angle defined by the lateral sides of the “Masonic” Keystone is 23½ degrees, or the axial inclination of the earth to the sun, and its characteristic internal triangles are the same as constitute the vertical section of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh and the side elevation of various Central American pyramids and North American Indian mounds.”


Higgins illustrates this with his own drawing of these ‘keystones’ including the dimensions he describes:




“We find the masonic keystone to be not merely an architectural requisite but the angle of 23½ degrees, or the correct inclination of the axis of the earth to the pole of the ecliptic, and to embody the vertical section of the great Pyramid of Gizeh four times repeated”.


Below is my own rendition to illustrate Higgins’ description and to show more evidence of this connection between the Great Pyramid and the tilt angle of the Earth.


It may look deceiving, but the keystone is actually formed from a perfect square.





So then, determined by the equal, height to top-width ratio of the Keystone – and as Higgins says, from the “angle defined by the lateral sides of the Masonic keystone” (2 x 11.75° = 23.5°) – we naturally derive the same ‘slope angle’ as has been employed in the building of the Great Pyramid . . . 51.5°.

In other words, the internal triangles of 51.5° are determined by the sectioned sides of 11.75°.


Again, the precise value of each of the four sloping side angles of the Great Pyramid is 51.84°, and in arc minutes, 51°.51’.


What is most remarkable is this part of Higgins’ narrative:




“Far and away the most ancient of all Masonic symbols is the keystone [ . . . ] In the keystone [ . . . ] we have a figure which is of importance today after having retained an identical significance for at least six or seven thousand years that adepts in the cosmic mysteries have been wearing miniature Keystones as assign of their proficiency. Few Masons associate the keystone with any other consideration than that of being the essential element to the construction of an arch, as employed in building. A great deal of Masonic speculation has been indulged in concerning it, the assumption generally being that as the sky seems to be an arch, that the meridian sun seemed to be the essential architectural detail”.

The identical significance of these keystones goes back further than six to seven thousand years? 


This is interesting because as we will see later on in these presentations, the same geometric principle expressed in these 7,000-year-old ancient keystones, which have been based on the axial inclination of the Earth to the Sun, according to Higgins’ findings ( – i.e., varying uniform side angles of 11.75°, 23.5° and the precessional diameter of 47°) – appears to have also been employed in the construction of the Great Pyramid, especially in the placement of its two internal chambers as viewed in E/W, blueprint, cross-section.


After reading these quotes from a book on Ancient Freemasonry, in which the obliquity angle of the Earth is mentioned numerous times alongside the Great Pyramid of Giza, one wouldn’t be surprised by the following revelations.




The Great Seal of the United States

Higgins page 32 keystones


The angle of 23.5º is also referenced in one of the most infamous symbols of them all – the “All-Seeing Eye” in the detached and floating capstone of the pyramid from which rays of light radiate. This symbolic image which is on every US $1 bill is really a reference to the Great Pyramid of Giza which is missing its capstone. I am perhaps the first person to discover this in 2001 and it’s amazing how people have overlooked this 23.5-degree reference. However saying this, I am also amazed at the large number of people who don’t know that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees – or that it is even tilted. One friend of mine was puzzled as to how the Earth could be tilted, as he had always thought that there was no zero-reference point in space to relate it to; no up or down, or left and right . . . unaware of the fact that the Earth is tilted in respect of the zero Ecliptic Plane – it's plane of orbit around the Sun.


In any case, the Great Seal supports what we have presented on this page; that there is indeed a connection between the angle of the Earth’s axis and the Great Pyramid of Giza.




The pyramid in the Great Seal, which some say depicts the steep Pyramid of Cestius in Rome, was actually derived from the illustration of the Great Pyramid of Giza given in John Greaves’ book Pyramidographia (1646). It is steep because it encodes the angle of 23.5°, so as to reference the connection, (known only to initiates) that surely exists between the Great Pyramid and the Earth's axis - encoded as the Great Pyramid is with factual geophysical information and knowledge about our planet.


The eye in the capstone symbol or insignia, (the ‘Eye of Horus’ according to Higgins), has been attributed to the Masons and in particular that shadowy secret society (which has become the main subject of all conspiracy theorists) the Illuminati.

Sometimes the ‘Eye of the Supreme Being’ is symbolically placed within the pyramid itself.


The image below claimed to be the Masonic Emblem from London, (Lodge 78), is another example of this reference to 23.5° as evident on the US One Dollar bill. Not only does it confirm what we see above in the Great Seal, it is also Masonic in origin and therefore an interesting find – especially in view of the fact that the Freemasons have always denied that they had anything to do with creating the Great Seal of the United States.



Figure 18: The Great Seal of the United States on the $1 bill.

Pyramid and Capstone angled at 23.5º.


Figure 14.

Artwork Copyright © G Osborn. 2010. All Rights Reserved

Figure 16.

Although there is no ‘definitive proof’ here, the examples we have seen so far presents compelling evidence that the Great Pyramid and it’s side angle of between 51 and 52 degrees is associated in some way with the Earth’s geophysics – notably the obliquity of the Earth’s axis and the Precession of the Equinoxes, and that this association was known and has already been acknowledged by certain people throughout history who have encoded this knowledge . . . and it’s easy to see why.


Let’s say that you possessed information that would be seen as “heretical”; that you understood that the stories presented in the Bible and the Gospels, and which had been adopted, adapted and promulgated by the Church, had really derived from an earlier knowledge and wisdom that was once known long ago in ancient Egypt, and perhaps even earlier.


Let’s also say that you know that the symbolic message behind the geometrical layout of Giza and that the building of the Great Pyramid contains the true meaning behind many of these stories that had been misinterpreted, misconceptualised, and over the years had become corrupted, twisted and exploited in all kinds of ways to manipulate the beliefs of the collective and attain power over the collective consciousness.

Wouldn’t you want to bring attention to this information and knowledge?


And if so, then you surely wouldn’t want to make it obvious. You would know that if you wanted to bring attention to the Great Pyramid as the source of all these mysteries, and send a message or communicate an important insight about it to those who would understand, you would only have to give reference to the angle of 52º by drawing or painting a linear object at this angle and emphasising it in such a way that is conspicuous and begging to be examined and measured.


Some of these artists were even clever and daring enough to place these angles in such a way that one could easily construct an image of the Great Pyramid that magically appears out of the painting; revealing how these angles are encoded within the ancient structure, as I will reveal in subsequent presentations.    


Discovering these angles within the Great Pyramid in the first place is what brings it all together.

The fact that this impressive monument, placed as it is at the centre of the Earth’s landmasses (so it has been observed and stated many times) is pointing to its own location on the Earth, reveals, and quite unequivocally, that these angles were deliberately encoded within it and at a very early time in our history.

Thus, it appears that the angles have been passed down by tradition and encoded in many different sources.

They are the “key” to this knowledge contained within the Great Pyramid and the other monuments at Giza. Therefore the many sources that reference these angles were also meant to preserve this “key”.


Once we discover all this information within the Great Pyramid and at Giza, then we realize why the angles were encoded in paintings and other sources. Again, these sacred ‘Cosmic angles’ as I now refer to them, were passed down through tradition and from a primordial time far back in our history.  

The initiate artists, who had reached a certain ‘degree’ in their knowledge, then expressed these angles (this ‘knowledge’) in their paintings.


As to the source of these references, it would be a mistake to say that the evidence points directly to the Freemasons.

We could go back further in time to the Rosicrucians, the Kabbalists and the Templars and so on through many different archaic, esoteric, arcane ‘schools of thought’ and traditions worldwide.

In essence though, it is the source of this knowledge that connects these secret societies and the knowledge has always remained the same, and so the secrets these people possess, or claim to possess, is only part of the story.


As the work of Higgins reveals, this knowledge is far older and goes way back into remote antiquity and perhaps to a lost ‘source civilisation’.

How else can we explain why the spiritual wisdom, practical knowledge and philosophies of the ancients, is in many ways far more profound and superior to anything we have today?


I am taking the reader on a journey; revealing piece by piece the evidence I had arrived at myself through my own research.

The most significant piece of evidence will come later when I reveal the angles that have remained hidden within the Great Pyramid and the monuments of Giza for centuries.


23.5°, 52° and the Golden Ratio

The following may hold the answer to the close relationship between these two angles which are found together in numerous paintings and other sources – in that they are calculably linked to the Golden Ratio or phi 1.618.


23.5 x phi 1.618 (Golden Ratio) = 38.0237987 – or round figure, 38. 90 subtract 38 = 52.


It is a fact that painters and artists used the Golden Ratio in their art, so it’s possible that this is the reason why these two angles are so repetitive; however it is difficult to see how the angles of linear items and objects were produced by this formula.


The mainstream view is that the Great Pyramid was constructed ca. 2600 to 2400 BCE - some 4,500 years ago; however recent evidence suggests that its possibly much older, as are the other monuments at Giza - especially the Sphinx.

Important to our own enquiry here, is that the Great Pyramid’s side angles are between 51° and 52° – precise figure, 51.84°, and in arc minutes they are 51°.5'. Again, the all-round figure of 52° is often used as a reference to the slope angle of its four sides.



Artwork. Copyright © G Osborn. 2001. All Rights Reserved

Figure 1:  The Great Pyramid of Giza. (To Scale). Cross-section view, looking West.

Great Pyramid Hans Holbein the Younger Krishen Khanna, Christ Carrying His Cross

Figure 6:  Left: Christ and the cross by Hans Holbein the Younger. (c. 1520 - 1540).

 Right: Christ Carrying His Cross by Krishen Khanna, 1925.


The Masonic Keystone is the central stone of an Arch, representing the Royal Arch of Heaven. The Royal Arch, which straddles the twin pillars known as Joachim and Boaz, is positioned above a gateway or entrance, and symbolises the Arc of the sky.

Higgins informs us that the side angles of the Keystone - the symbolism of which is very ancient -  encodes the Earth's 23.5-degree obliquity angle.




royal arch

Figure 15: The Royal Arch with the Keystone, which represents the elevated position of the Sun, at the central position.


We have seen how the St John’s, Maltese and Templar Crosses, contain the angles of 23.5° and that these crosses present us with a diagram of the Earth, including the Equatorial and Ecliptic planes. With a simple demonstration, I will now reveal that the same information we saw earlier is also linked to the Great Pyramid – which in turn, also contains information about the Earth’s axis, as will also be revealed later.


The interesting thing is that there is no record of the Templars ever having anything to do with Giza, although old stone-etched, Templar crosses have been found there.  

I find this all rather curious. One would think that above all else, the Templars would have known about the three great pyramids of Giza and that numerous connections between the Templars and Giza would exist?

Well they do . . . but for some reason this connection appears to have been firmly concealed with only a few subtle clues and references to this connection still existing in certain places.


There are small stone carvings of pyramids and triangles, some with crosses inside them made by Templar Knights in various locations around the world and also at Giza. Amongst these, there are also curious circular designs with radii – lines radiating outward from their centre.  Some researchers have interpreted these designs to be associated with Ley lines and maps of the Earth’s energy grid of meridians or ‘lines of force’. It is said the Templars, who travelled far and wide, had some knowledge of this and considering the art of dowsing, which is centuries old and goes back to the earliest shamans, this view is not so far-fetched as it might first appear.

In any case, the view that Giza and the Great Pyramid would be important to the Templars, as indeed these structures are to many of us today, makes sense.


It is a well-known fact that the sides of the Great Pyramid are concaved; that they bow inwards slightly – just like the sides of the Templar Cross, which are slightly or greatly inverted in its different variations. So in reality, the Great Pyramid has eight sides or faces. The Great Pyramid is only one of two pyramids in the world that has this concave feature, the other being the third smaller pyramid at Giza (said to belong to Pharoah Menkaure or “G3” as it is called today).


The amazing thing is, that the Templar Cross when opened out flat, transforms into the Great Pyramid with its slightly concaved sides; but instead of opening outwards from the apex, and each of the sides falling backward, think of the sides as having been cut along each of the corners, so that when we push down on the apex, the base of the sides move outward and squash flat into a Templar Cross.

Also from page 16:




Figure 15

Figure 19: Masonic Emblem from London - said to be from Masonic Lodge No. 78.

The 23.5-degree angle passes exactly through the centre of the circular medal as if representing the celestial polar axis of the Earth.



Figure 20: The same image on a Commemoration Medal, dated 1742.

Image: AN128447001 © The Trustees of the British Museum. Department: Coins & Medals. Registration number: M.8466

Bibliographic reference. Medallic Illustrations 2 p571.206. Location: King's Library.


Artwork. Copyright © G Osborn. 2001. All Rights Reserved

Artwork. Copyright © G Osborn. 2001. All Rights Reserved

Figure 15.

“In discussing the Masonic keystone Mr. Higgins displayed examples picked up in his travel from China, India, ancient Tyre, Egypt and Palestine that all were cut on the angle of 23½, but perhaps his most precious specimens were several black serpentine amulets from Yucatan and Central America more than three thousand years old that displayed the key-stone and also the inverted Tau cross, so familiar to Masonic brethren in their lodge work”.

Also this from page 16:





As the illustrative examples in his book show, again, Higgins offered many examples of these references to the angle of 23.5 degrees, taken from the earliest sources of Masonic thought and contemporary Freemasonry symbolism, and was perhaps the first and only person to do so – until now.

Higgins revealed that the angles of 23.5º and 47º (two times 23.5º) are two of Freemasonry’s “Cosmic Angles” and as we have seen, in his books he included illustrations of these angles present in ancient coins depicting pre-Christian, Phoenician temples of Cypress, as well as in ancient Greek paintings of Hermes and Ceres, amongst others.


The amazing thing is, that 47º (two times 23.5º) is the diameter of the abstract circle the Earth’s axis draws in the northern sky over a period of 26,000 years – known as the ‘Cone of Precession.’ This is the Precessional Cycle – also related to the Precession of the Equinoxes and this cycle is the result of the Earth’s tilted axis.


The miniature Keystone amulets which Higgins found during his archaeological investigations, and whose side angles are carved at 11.75º, 23.5º and also 47º, is sure evidence that the ancients not only knew about the obliquity angle of the Earth, but also knew about Precession. And if so then again, the highest-degree Masons are in possession of this knowledge, even though our mainstream historians, astronomers and geophysicists say that Precession was an unknown phenomenon before 126 BC, when the Greek astronomer and mathematician, Hipparchus first discovered it. (Again, see last section on the Preliminary page, for an explanation of Precession.)


However, what I neglected to mention earlier, is that although Higgins was perhaps the first author to bring attention to these 23.5° Earth's axis angle references in various sources throughout history, he did so while commenting on the mysteries of the “Great Pyramid of Gizeh” – revealing a once known, but now largely forgotten, historical relationship between the two.

He often wrote at length on his descriptions of ancient artifacts - the ancient keystone amulets for example - that contained both the Earth’s obliquity angle and the angles of 51.5° and 52° – again, angle values associated with the Great Pyramid’s inclined sides.


From page 16 of Higgins’ book, we find this quote which is more supporting evidence of the ‘Earth’s Axis Obliquity/Great Pyramid’ connection:





“That the Keystone is an old solar amulet is evinced by its frequent ornamentation by the Greeks and Romans with Gorgon or Medusa heads, for they well knew its angle of 23½ degrees to have an astronomical significance. The most famous figure of the keystone proportions in ancient art is the so-called Zeus Otricoli of Rome, the flowing hair of the god being arranged at the correct keystone angle on each side of the face.

"Another great amulet worn by the ancients was the double keystone, an angle of 47 degrees, a triangle described by the Pole Star and the positions of the earth at the two solstices”.

. . . And this from pages 200 - 201:





Figure 9..