It’s one thing to find the Earth's axis obliquity angle of 23.5º for the first time within the geometrical structure of the Great Pyramid of Giza - one of the most mysterious and famous buildings in the world. But to find this same angle having been deliberately encoded over and over again in various works of art; for example, paintings by many of the leading artists in history, also sculptures, architecture, symbolic imagery – both ancient and contemporary – is quite staggering.

One could and would argue that according to the ‘law of averages’, this angle is sure to appear in many paintings and as frequently as all the other angles we can extract from a 360º circle. However, the truth is that the paintings or sources myself and others have analysed, are all associated by theme and also contain deliberately planned, conspicuous, linear items and features that are just "begging" to be measured so one can obtain the angles being presented.
I should also mention that while conducting my research and analysis of these paintings, I have also purchased full-size prints of many of these same paintings to avoid any re-sizing, scaling discrepancies or computer-monitor distortion effects one finds when measuring the angles in images taken from the Internet using computer software. On re-checking these sources, I have found most of these angle references to be accurate and precise.
Also, for the sake of balancing the argument and to try to prove myself wrong, I also looked into the fact that the close angle of 22.5 degrees is a common angle used in art for perspective, as 22.5º is one sixteenth of a 360º circle. I mention this so that others would be aware of this, and so test this themselves.
I have now examined many paintings, and have found that although some of the overall ‘perspective features’ in some paintings are in the ‘right ball-park’ and could therefore be associated with the 22.5º angle of perspective so as to support this given fact, I have found that many suspect features, such as columns, pillars, staffs, poles, flagpoles, sceptres, spears, lances, pikes, clubs, bones, limbs, swords, knives and other linear, sharp and rectangular objects, to be conspicuously and definitely at the angle of 23.5º, and in some cases 23º – which is most evident in the earliest sources.
We find this with certain linear items or features in well-known Masonic symbols and esoteric symbolism – and especially those in highly symbolic paintings portraying mystical or religious themes.

Furthermore; although very close, the angle of 23.5º is not mentioned as having anything to do with the common angles of perspective, so the many references to this angle must mean something else – and for the time being, for me, the present obliquity (tilt) of the Earth’s axis of rotation is the main contender.
This is all the more evident when we discover this angle in the earliest sources.
For example, we find the ‘round value’ angle of 23 degrees evident in ancient Egyptian art – especially illustrations or wall-relief scenes that feature the Djed Column or Djed Pillar.



There are also numerous Djed images at the Temple of Hathor at Dendera, most of which are leaning at the angle of 23 degrees.
In his book Star Maps (1979), author William R. Fix writes:

To illustrate this, in the following image, we see the arc of the sky being held up by a series of Djed pillars.

Indeed many depictions of Osiris in profile show his Atef crown angled at 23 or 23+ degrees, and we find that the crown worn by Seti I in the wall relief above is orientated at 23 degrees. As we can see the crowns are made to lean back at this angle with the head held perfectly straight.

Higgins enjoyed a favourable reputation amongst his fellow Masons, one of whom writes about his archaeological field work on the origins of Masonic knowledge:

By all accounts Higgins’ work was and still is, revered and respected, and considered a tremendously informative resource for those researching the origins of Freemasonry. But what interested me on first viewing his book, is that Higgins made numerous comments about the angle of 23.5° and 47° (2 x 23.5°), and all within the context of his travelogues, citing the earliest Masonic sources of knowledge, which included ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China and the Americas, extending also to the Gothic architecture of Medieval Europe.
Higgins’ books contain a wealth of information – an extraordinary and unique insight into the wisdom and knowledge of these ancient cultures, which as far as I know, have not been published elsewhere. More importantly for me, the numerous examples he presents as regards these ancient references to the present obliquity angle of the Earth, supports my own view that the same angle references I have found in many sources, especially paintings from the 17th century, were deliberately encoded and for good reason.

“Greek architecture from the earliest Mycenaen and Trojan periods is based on the same sacred and hieratic proportions as the Egyptian, although the selection of salient angles is different. The Mycenaen pointed arch, such as is found in the famous 'Treasure House of Atraeus' and surmounting the celebrated 'gate of the lions,' represents the cosmic cone of 47 degrees. In the latter monument the column representing the pole of the ecliptic, flanked by the solstitial lions, almost speaks for itself.


Figure 9: Diagram by Frank C. Higgins from page 51 of Ancient Freemasonry (1919).

“JHVH hath prepared a “tent” for the sun,
And thence he cometh forth as from the bridal chamber, the bridegroom,
And rejoices, like a hero, to run his course.”
Psalms 19 - 4,6.

What exactly the cryptic “bridal chamber” is, is something I will explain later. Also, the Masonic symbolism of the ‘seven stars’ (also known as the"Seven Rishes" - Hindu), is often interpreted as the seven stars of Ursa Major, (the Great Bear), and then later the Pleiades constellation, known as the "Seven Sisters"; when in fact according to very ancient sources, the ‘seven stars‘ symbolism has its origin in the Seven Polestars associated with the Precessional Cycle. Higgins was surely aware of this, having placed six additional stars in an elliptical circle (representing the precessional cycle) surrounding the seventh - being Polaris, the present Pole Star. This is an important detail we will also examine later.

Another fine example of his theme of a wind instrument being played at the angle of 23.5° can be seen in The Dance of Death (1493) by Michael Wolgemut.
The theme of ‘death’ is a common one with this angle. I have also discovered this angle and the angle of 23° in paintings on the themes of conflict, combat and war, where weapons like staves, pikes, swords, lances, muskets and rifles have all been painted at these same angles.
See here . . . Knights in Battle ("Plate from an 18th century English history about the European Middle Ages and Renaissance") . . . to give just one example.


The Templar Seal

Below are two medieval-era images of the official Seal of the Order of the Knights Templar. The Seal shows two knights (Hugh de Payens and Godefroi Sant Omer) on one horse – said to be a symbol of their early poverty.
The text is in Greek and Latin characters, SIGILLUM MILITUM XPISTI: followed by a cross – meaning “the Seal of the Soldiers of Christ”.
The Order was established in 1128 and these Seals date from around 1158, but as we can see the knight’s lances are angled at close to 23 degrees, something that has generally escaped everyone’s notice until now.

High-ranking Freemason, Frank C. Higgins, offers some additional information on this correlation, the subject of which is better placed within the context of the connections being discussed on a subsequent page in the presentation. See here:

The Templar Seal

The Templar Cross Pattée, the St John Cross – often referred to as the Maltese Cross, an emblem of the Order of the Knights of Malta – all have basically the same design. What is not known is that like the symbolic device of the Square and Compass of the Freemasons, this type of cross was also used as a symbol of the Earth, encoding both the obliquity of the Earth’s axis of rotation and the "Cosmic Cone of 47 degrees as I later discovered. I found that in most traditional images of the Templar cross, the angle of the arms measure around 23.5º – being the same as the present obliquity of the Earth’s celestial pole.

Templar Crosses

Artwork: Copyright © Gary Osborn. 2010. All Rights Reserved

Figure 19: Maltese Crosses from Valletta, St. John’s co-cathedral, Malta. c. 15th Century

Note in the above diagram that the other points on the vertical arms would mark the two opposite ‘cones’ of the precessional cycle – both north and south (diameter of 47º – double 23.5º) – and especially as seen drawn in space around the Ecliptic Pole in most text-book diagrams of the Earth to illustrate the 26,000-year cycle of precession. (For an explanation on Precession see bottom of page here:)
We are again reminded of the legs of the Masonic Square and Compass, which in most versions are also at the angle of 23.5° creating a cone of 47°. (See also image top right in figure 4.)
The angle of 23.5° turns up in many Alchemical drawings and mostly in the paintings from the Baroque period (17th century) – especially the Vanitas theme which I will comment on shortly and which was popular during this period; also paintings on the theme of Arcadia which include shepherds, tombs and skulls as well as paintings on the theme of St. Jerome and the skull (see Chapter Five) . . . and most consistently in the paintings of John the Baptist.

The Baptist Revelation

There is a great mystery related to John the Baptist of that there is no doubt.
Interesting is the fact that in many of Leonardo Da Vinci’s paintings, we find reference to the ‘John gesture’ – the index finger pointing upwards.
The phrase ‘John gesture’ was first coined by authors Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince in their book The Templar Revelation. Not all these paintings feature John making this sign, but many would agree that this is John’s signature.
We find it in the famous mural, The Last Supper, (1595–1498), where Thomas (the origin of the phrase “doubting Thomas”) is thrusting an upright index finger at Christ. We find it in da Vinci’s first portrayal of John the Baptist, completed in 1516, who looks rather androgynous (male-female) and expressing the Mona Lisa smile.
We also find it in his 1546 painting The Adoration of the Magi.

Da Vinci was not the only artist to use this motif; we find it in paintings by Poussin for example, (see figure below), and also Raphael’s The School of Athens from 1510.
However, what many of us have overlooked is that alongside the vertical-pointing index fingers, the index fingers in over 30 paintings of John the Baptist, painted between 1515 and 1717, are also pointing at the angle of 23.5 degrees!
As far as I know, no one has noticed this particular phenomenon before. Below is a prime example – one of many.

Figure 19
Figure 20

Figure 21: Left: St John the Baptist in the Desert by Titian (c. 1542).
Right: Crucifixion with John the Baptist and a Lamb by Matthias Grünewald (a.k.a. Mathis Gothart). 1515.

Figure 25
Figure 21

Figure 22: Left: St. John the Baptist by El Greco. (c. 1600).
(Index finger of left hand pointing down at 23.5°, and index finger of right hand pointing at the same angle but perpendicular to the former).
Right: St. John the Baptist by Jusepe de Ribera, (c. 1624). Note that the Reed Cross is perfectly straight as if also giving a reference to upright, zero obliquity.

Again, I have personally found over 30 Baptist paintings that repeat this same motif, both apparent and subtle, and in a number of different ways.
The full list of these paintings include:

St John the Baptist by Caravaggio, (1604). (Large digit of Index finger of right hand, 23.5° – staff at 13° - tapering off at the bottom at 23.5°).
Same title again by Caravaggio, (1610). (Index finger of left hand pointing downward at 23.5°).
Same title by Nicolas Regnier, (1610). (Both index fingers at 23.5° - creating the precessional cone of 47°).
Same title by Valentin de Boulogne, (1628–1630). (Index finger of left hand pointing upwards at 23.5°).
St. John the Baptist By Baciccio, (1676). (Index finger of right hand pointing at 23.5°).
Same title by François Le Moyne, (c. 1717). (Index finger of left hand pointing upwards at 23.5°).
The Boy Baptist in the Desert by Raphael. (c. 1517). This is a peculiar example as the finger is pointing straight upwards. However, the reed cross at the base begins at the angle of 23.5 degrees; it then straightens out and ends vertically upright.

Below is an interesting example by Paolo Veronese; St John the Baptist Preaching, (c. 1562), which clearly shows and quite conspicuously too, that this painting contains 'encoded information'.
As we can see, there are many references to the angle of 23.5 degrees: the trees along with the lay of the land, as well as the top half of John's body, are at this same angle and in contrast to the bottom half of his body - as expressed by his right leg - which is straight. He is also pointing straight downwards with the index finger of his left hand - again, referencing zero obliquity.

The Two Johns and the Solstices

The most likely explanation for these 23.5° references in the majority of these Baptist paintings would be that the ‘Feast Day’ of the Baptist takes place on 24th June, close to the Summer Solstice – the day when the Sun is on the ‘Tropic of Cancer’ – latitude 23.5 degrees, North of the Equator – and this is a connection worth noting.
John the Baptist was not only worshipped by the Templars, but he is also the patron saint of the Freemasons, and in Masonic lore John shares this trait with ‘John the Divine,’ also known as ‘John the Evangelist,’ whose ‘Feast Day’ takes place on 27th December, close to the Winter Solstice – the day when the sun is on the ‘Tropic of Capricorn’ – latitude 23.5 degrees, South of the Equator.


Figure 27

Artwork: Copyright © Gary Osborn. 2010. All Rights Reserved

Figure 24: The Prime Meridian, Equator,
The Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.

Figure 9

Figure 25: Bacchus: John in the Wilderness. Leonardo Da Vinci. c.1517.
A detail that hasn’t been noticed or commented on before, are the two skulls resting on the high-ground just above and on both sides of the staff

At first this was puzzling, especially after all this repetition of index fingers pointing at the Earth’s obliquity angle. It certainly stopped me in my tracks. The Da Vinci-related Bacchus/Baptist painting seemed to be the “joker in the pack”, and it is well known that Da Vinci was something of a “trickster”, who added all manner of strange things in his paintings.
This 30-degree angle, as taken from Da Vinci's original sketch, is all the more puzzling when we look at another painting that portrays the very same code but in a slightly different way. This is Nicolas Poussin’s The Sacrament of Baptism, 1642. Again, it includes a man pointing straight upwards and a man pointing at the exact angle of 23.5°.

Figure 29

Figure 26: Detail from The Sacrament of Baptism, Nicolas Poussin, 1642.

The arm of the man pointing at 23.5° is also at this same angle, as are the shins of the men’s exposed legs in the foreground.
Painting shins, arms, fingers and staffs at a specific angle appears to have been a favourite motif of Poussin’s and we find this in his other paintings – especially The Arcadian Shepherds, version II.
In any case, what we see here is the same code, and it’s incredible that the same code should be carried over from the Renaissance era of Da Vinci to the Baroque period of Poussin. But why would Da Vinci present us with a different value?
Why is the angle 30° instead of 23.5°?
As a point of interest, the upward pointing finger belonging to the maiden next to the upright tree in the painting The Adoration of the Magi by Da Vinci, is not pointing straight upwards as is often referred, but really at the angle of 30°. However to the left we see a figure holding a linear object - a rod or stick - which is at the angle of 23.5°; and when we follow the line of the angle the stick is making, we find it ends at the base of the finger, showing a connection between the two and between these two angles.

Mary Magdalene

There are many paintings of Mary Magdalene with a skull and a large Crucifix, and she is often shown holding the Crucifix at the angle of either, 23° or 23.5 degrees.

Figure 32

Figure 29: Maria Maddalena in Contemplazioni del Crocifisso (1936) by Rovigo Palazzo Roverella.

In some examples a book is included that will either be placed at one of these angles or leaning open at one of these angles. We also find that trees, the lay of the land or huge slabs of rock, as in the sketch La Maddalena del Batoni by Carlo Naya (1816-1882), are at the Earth’s obliquity angle.

In the painting La Magdalena, Lorca, Casa de Guevara by Pedro Camacho Felizes (1694), the crucifix is leaning at 23.5.
In the painting Maria Maddalena in Penitenza (1822) (artist unknown), we see the Magdelene laying before the crucifix at 23°.
In the painting Repenting Magdalene by Georges de La Tour (1593–1652), Mary is holding the Crucifix at the angle of 23.5°.
And finally in the painting Noli Me Tangere by Correggio (c. 1522-1525), Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene, and like John the Baptist his index finger is pointing upwards at the angle of 23.5°. Also the long handle of a shovel next to his left leg is at the same angle precisely.

As we know, “a picture paints a thousand words” and so in attempting to understand the significance of the anomalous images and cryptic messages that appear to have been purposefully added into the paintings by Da Vinci and others, authors Picknett and Prince concluded that there is a “thread of heresy” that reaches back over 2000 years, and that the true story of the relationship between Jesus, John and Mary had been suppressed by the Roman Catholic Church.
As we have seen, also weaved within this “thread of heresy” are these angle references to the angle of 23.5 degrees, which these authors and others have missed and which are somehow associated, and considered no less heretical so it would appear.
We have seen how John the Baptist is associated with this angle via his ‘Feast Day’ that takes place on the Summer Solstice and when the declination of the sun reaches 23.5°. But this is only a cursory explanation or reason as to why this angle exists in the Baptist paintings. It doesn’t explain why he is associated with the Summer Solstice and why his counterpart John the Evangelist is associated with the Winter Solstice, and neither does it shed light on why this angle is encoded in so many other sources that appear to have nothing to do with the Baptist.
So now it is at this point that we may ask, ‘why’ is the Earth’s inclined axis being referenced in all these sources?
After all, some believe and are of the opinion, that the tilt of the Earth’s axis is a ‘natural phenomenon’ and that the 23.5º tilt is necessary as the summer and winter cycles govern life on our planet.

But, if this is true, then why do we find references to the angle of 23.5º in paintings on the theme of death, battle, war and conflict as well as enlightenment? 
What exactly did the ‘initiate’ artists know – those who gave reference to this angle?
What great secret was being communicated here between these initiates?

Well discovering the answer to this is one of the more interesting and fascinating elements to emerge from these discoveries and this research.

Figure 34
Figure 33 b

Figure 30: Left: La Magdalena, Lorca, Casa de Guevara by Pedro Camacho Felizes (1694).
Right: Repenting Magdalene by Georges de La Tour (1593–1652).

Figure 35
Figure 36

Figure 31: Left: Noli Me Tangere by Correggio (c. 1522-1525).
Right: St. John the Baptist in Ecstacy. (Painter unknown). This is a rare example of the reed cross at the angle of 23.5 degrees.

Heretical Knowledge

These subtle references to the tilt angle of the Earth in ancient art have not been acknowledged in the mainstream but are indeed important in our understanding of the ancient cultures who encoded them, as myself and others like Frank C. Higgins have discovered and acknowledged. While researching into this subject it becomes clear that a very long time ago there were people who possessed an advanced geophysical knowledge of our planet and long before the weighty dogma of irrational beliefs had been laid down by the Church, forcing a large percentage of humanity into a ‘Dark Age’ of ignorance.
The Catholic Church was very powerful during the so-called ‘Dark Ages’ as well as the ‘Middle Ages’ – and really until the dawning of Science and the so-called ‘Age of Enlightenment’ – so to be branded a heretic was very dangerous to one’s health. Those who understood the wisdom of the ancients and knew certain truths about the origins or Christianity – information which could undermine the Church – would have had to be seen to “toe the line” and so knowledge, which would have been seen as “heretical” and otherwise suppressed and stamped-out by the Church, would have been encoded – not only to preserve this knowledge, but also to secretly pass it onto others.
The religious persecutions made by the Church which increased between the 15th and 16th centuries culminated in the trial and execution of philosopher Giordano Bruno in Rome in 1600, who was burned at the stake for publically spreading his own ‘infinite’ cosmology of the universe and his own mixed brand of Neo-Platonism and Renaissance Hermetical science. The savage execution of Bruno sent a shock wave throughout Europe . . . the message was clear: “Heretics would not be tolerated”. It’s no wonder then that we find more paintings with these angle references dating from the 1600s than any other period in history.
Many philosophers, artists, occultists and men of science, were forced “underground”, and so as a way of communicating with each other using symbolism and other means, ancient knowledge and wisdom, as well as the most recent scientific discoveries, were encoded in various sources to preserve it for future generations. Giving some reference to this knowledge by encoding it, also served as ‘a voice’ for these people – many of them geniuses, who must have felt frustrated knowing things that were closer to the truth but which they could not openly express for fear of attracting the wrong kind of attention and the severest forms of punishment.
Having to encode this knowledge presented a paradox in which these people often walked a knife edge. Most no doubt had a vain wish in declaring their genius and their depth of knowledge and on things that could possibly change the world, but knowing that at the same time they had to conceal it, painfully dashed any personal desire associated with the imagined good fortune and public recognition, which in an ideal world would arrive naturally with the acceptance of paradigm-changing discoveries.
Aside from the use of ‘symbolism’, which has been used since ‘time immemorial’, the ideal medium for any code or cipher, and without it being obvious that one has encoded information, is the Arts. After all, to some extent, one has artistic licence to use any imagery one likes in the composition. It’s no surprise then to find that many architectural buildings, sculptures – especially illustrations and paintings – contain codes . . . and often the same code as I myself and others have discovered.
Beginning with the darkest kind – i.e., common blasphemies at the time, like Satanism, witchcraft, magic – leading on up to the kinds of heresies associated with diverse religious views, philosophies, beliefs and other faiths such as Catharism and of course Islam, which always threatened Christian Europe – are one thing . . . but what was it exactly that the Church had against the new pioneers of science?


The doctrine espoused by the Church was the ‘Concentric’ or Geocentric view offered by Claudius Ptolemy (100–165? AD), that all heavenly bodies – including the Sun – revolved around the Earth.
The Earth was the centre of all creation; each body was fixed upon a series of rotating celestial spheres, and according to God’s plan, the Earth was perfectly stable, did not rotate and was therefore ‘upright’ and in every way we would use the term.



In art there is a style or form of expression especially popular in Europe during the 17th century known as Vanitas – meaning ‘emptiness’ or ‘untruth’, from which we derive the English word ‘vanity’.
These compositions are usually ‘still life’ images or genre subjects with the objects symbolising the fragile transience of life. They mostly always feature a human skull, arm and thigh bones, antiquarian books, swords, candles, musical instruments and musical scores, flowers, large spiralled shells, an hourglass, and other paraphernalia arranged somewhat haphazardly on a table or large ornate chair. Sometimes floating bubbles are included to again give reference to the transience, brief life-span and fragility of human life.
Skulls are also an endemic feature in many of the 17th century paintings on the “ET IN ARCADIA” theme – again those by the painter Nicolas Poussin and also the painter Guercino (1618–1622). Often we will find a musical instrument or a book, perhaps a thigh bone or knife at the angle of 23°.

Notes, Links and References

1. These 23.5-degree references were first discovered by myself in 2001. It appears that I am perhaps the first and only person to discover these angle references, and bring them to public attention since Frank C. Higgins first presented those he had discovered in his books Ancient Freemasonry (1919), and which had inspired some study into the origins of Freemasonry during the early 1900s. The research is still ongoing and more are being discovered everyday and also by others interested in the phenomenon - some of whom have emailed me their findings.

2. See: Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection ,Vol 1. Sir Ernest Alfred Thompson Wallis Budge. (Dover Books, 1973; originally published in 1911 by The Medici Society Ltd).

3. In a discussion on the subject of the Djed Pillar, investigative journalist and author Filip Coppens pointed out to me his view that: “The Djed also symbolised the Nile – the “natural meridian” of Gizeh, also seen as Osiris’ spine”. In Figure 2 (see previous page, The Earth's Geophysics), I made a point of placing the map of the Earth so that the Axis also represents the Prime Meridian believed by many to have originally run through Giza, aligning with the River Nile, the longest river in the world, and also marked by the Great Pyramid.

4. This observation that the angle of the tilted Djed at the Temple of Abydos was close to the Earth's obliquity angle, was first mentioned in Catastrophobia: The Truth Behind Earth Changes in the Coming Age of Light. Barbara Hand Clow. (Bear & Company; annotated edition May 1, 2001).

5. Source: Star Maps: Astounding new evidence from ancient civilisations and modern scientific research of man's origins and return to the stars by William R. Fix, (Johnathan-James Books, Canada and Octopus Books, London. Printed in the USA. Editor R. Carolyn King. 1979). p. 32.

6. Ibid, p. 83.

7. Source: Myth and Symbol in Ancient Egypt. Robert Thomas Rundle Clark (Thames & Hudson 1959).

8. Source: The Secret Teaching of All Ages: An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Qabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy. Manly P. Hall. (1928) p. 46. For a ‘free read’ online copy of this book, see here:

9. I would like to thank Pete Reston for bringing the work of Frank C. Higgins to my attention. Pete noted the many references to the angles of 23.5 and 52 degrees in the books of Frank C. Higgins after reading my articles about the discovery of these angles in paintings and other sources. The information given in Higgins’ books based on the secrets of Freemasonry, which in turn are based on ancient wisdom and knowledge, is supportive of my own discoveries, and is evidence, if not proof that the references to these angles were deliberately placed in various sources and not ‘coincidental’ or apothenia on my part as some pseudosceptics have claimed so as to debunk my work.

10. Source: Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology, Frank C. Higgins. (First published 1919). p. 10.

11. Source: Initiation, The Meaning of, by Bro. Frank C. Higgins, New York. (The Builder July 1916).

12. Source: Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology, Frank C. Higgins. (First published 1919). p. 30.

13. Ibid. p. 30.

14. I would like to thank friend and fellow author, Andrew Collins, for sending me the original image of Zurvan, from which I created my own rendition. In an email, Andy writes:

“Zervan holds a staff, which could easily be an allusion to the Earth's axial tilt, and sure enough – line up the staff from the vertical centre line of the figure and it is 23.5 degrees. Evidence like this will help your case for the importance of the 23.5 degree tilt axis in the ancient mindset.”

The “staff” is not at 23.5 degrees as Andy suggested but is closer to 23 degrees, as we would come to expect from art of this earlier period.

15. Source: Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology, Frank C. Higgins. (First published 1919). p. 50.

16. Ibid. pp. 50 – 52.

17. See: Professor G. J. Toomer. “Hipparchus and Babylonian Astronomy” in A Scientific Humanist: Studies in Memory of Abraham Sachs, edited by Erle Leichty, Maria deJ. Ellis, and Pamela Gerardi, 353-365. Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund 9. Philadelphia 1988.

18. Quote from Apocalypse: Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia.

19: Source: The Grandmasters Seal: Mary Leinhart’s Dissertation. Mary Adelle Leinart, 2004. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory University of Sheffield, England.

20. Quotes From St. John the Baptist Patron Saint of Freemasonry by: Phillip G. “Phil” Elam, Grand Orator (1999-2000) Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Missouri:
See here:

“By history, custom, tradition and ritualistic requirements, the Craft holds in veneration the Festival Days of St. John the Baptist on June 24th, and St. John the Evangelist on December 27th. Any Blue Lodge that forgets either of these important Festival Days forfeits a precious link with the past and loses an opportunity for the renewal of allegiance to everything in Freemasonry symbolized by these Patron Saints”.

“St. John’s the Baptist's Day, June 24th, marks the summer solstice, when nature attains the zenith of light and life and joy. St. John’s the Evangelist’s, December 27th, symbolizes the turn of the sun’s farthest journey, which is symbolic of the attainment of wisdom, the rewards of a well-spent life, and goodwill toward men”.

21. Wikipedia: Bacchus: John the Baptist in the Wilderness.

22. Arktos: Polar Myth in Science, Symbolism and Nazi Survival by Joscelyn Godwin. (New Leaf Distribution Company; New edition, Dec 1996). Originally published in 1993. p. 182.

“Where did the Greek philosophers get such ideas? Probably from the scientifically more-advanced cultures of Chaldea and Egypt”.

23. Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archeology, Frank C. Higgins. (First published 1919). p. 381.


“A great number of those wonderful Greek scientists, who gave forth such mighty discoveries from Alexandria thus appear to have been merely offering as their own work that of the Egyptian, Chaldean and Hindoo masters, who had preceded them, a proceeding which none will recognize as having been either good, square or true on their parts”.

24. During December 2010, and unable to correspond with the artist Elsie Russell directly, I sent an email to Elsie Russell’s assistant asking why Elsie had referenced the angle of 23.5 degrees (obliquity of Earth’s axis) and also 52 degrees, so repetitiously in many of her Vanitas paintings.
This was the answer I received:

“Elsie often uses the Golden Ratio in setting up her compositions, but has never intentionally used the 23.5 degree angle. She arranges these compositions by eye, so she might have a natural proclivity to it?”

I thought this was rather an evasive answer, as one would be extremely lucky to paint objects at exactly 23.5 degrees in several paintings and by chance.
I would ask that the reader look closely again at the four paintings above by Elsie Russell (see figure 35), and be his or her own judge.


  1. Excellent work.
    Regaarding the angle of 30 degrees. It is that portion of the sky assigned to each constellation of the zodiac. Each of the 12 zodiacal constellation covers 30 degrees of arc across the 360 degree belt of the zodiac. Another clue regarding precession I think. Sorry if you mentioned that and i missed it. Thanks.

    (Posted on 2017-10-28 16:04:00 by Chris Morford)
  2. Gary,
    I have read many articles with reference to the 23.5 tilt angle ,but the well researched articles that you have presented here is highly commendable.
    Many thanks for the same and keep up the good work.

    (Posted on 2017-03-08 10:35:00 by andu1987)
  3. Gary,

    Your discoveries are commendable. I can't wait to read your book "The Giza Prophecy", which is ordered and should be at the post office ready for pick-up.

    I'm not sure what you imply here except for the fact that certain knowledgeable people withheld information for fear of their lives. Heresy was intolerable by the Church, but the Church itself was founded on the exploitation of truth to begin with and was actually a means to control the masses and keep the Roman Empire intact. I wouldn't be surprised if Davinci et. al. were privy to the things that the Church already knew, but didn't want to make public. Rome exploited Christianity and put a Pagan spin on it to appease the largely Pagan region. They began to kill the "heretics", who were really the holders of the most essential teachings of Christ. I'm sure I'll get a better feel for your conclusions as you post more here on the site.

    In one instance, I notice a subtle suggestion that the world is not perfect because God's plan was not perfect: " that these angle references reveal the truly heretical truth that God’s plan is not perfect; that the tilt of the Earth which was seen as unnatural also indicates that the fate of the Earth is uncertain and that its tilted condition may be the result of a global cataclysm in the past...."

    I'm not sure if you read my book, but the cataclysmic event, which destroyed the civilization preceding us by more than 4 million years, was caused by man's discovery and misuse of Absolute Knowledge. Absolute knowledge is Absolute Power or the Power of Truth, which is constantly shaping events and experiences to reveal the errors in our beliefs. Rather than go into a long explanation here, the human view of causality is often ego-centric and fails to see the underlying forces, which I call the Metaphysics of Truth. In the end--the Omega, which is totality in understanding, returns and is reflected in a perfect and harmonious physical world.

    So instead of viewing God as imperfect, we can see the imperfections as the result of man's lack of understanding, which is inherent in a new civilization that was never privy to the knowledge afforded the previous society. I hope you understand my drift

    (Posted on 2012-09-26 02:09:00 by Matthew Petti)

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