Gary Osborn

Copyright © Gary Osborn 2017. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © Gary Osborn 2017. All Rights Reserved.

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Earth Measures

Due to the equatorial bulge caused by the Earth’s rotation, the Earth is not a perfect sphere . . . it is an oblate spheroid, or oblate ellipsoid. This means that the circumference of the Earth is slightly wider around the horizontal equator than around the vertical poles.

Below is a list of the Earth’s polar and equatorial measurements according to today’s best estimates. I have listed the most precise values of these measurements in meters, kilometers and miles:

Polar (Radius, Diameter and Circumference) of the Earth

Polar Radius: 6,356,752.3 meters, (6,356.7523 kilometers, 3,949.9028 miles).

Polar Diameter: 12,713,504.6 meters, (12,713.5046 kilometers . . . 7,899.8055 miles).

Polar Circumference: 39,940,652.65274 meters, (39,940.65265274 kilometers . . . 24,817.971 miles.

Equatorial (Radius, Diameter and Circumference) of the Earth

Equatorial Radius: 6,378,137 meters, (6,378.1370 kilometers, 3,963.1906 miles).

Equatorial Diameter: 12,756,274 meters (12,756.274 kilometers . . . 7,926.3812 miles).

Equatorial Circumference: 40,075,016.68557849 meters, (40,075.01668557849 kilometers . . . 24,901.461 miles).

Degree of Longitude

Longitude is the measurement of distance both east and west of the Zero Prime Meridian, which was discussed in an earlier presentation.

Like a circle, the equator of the Earth is divided up into 360 degrees of longitude.

Moving north or south from the equator, a degree of longitude will gradually become shorter, in that the meridians or lines of longitude will arc inwards and converge ever closer to each other as they approach the north and south poles, so that exactly at the poles the degrees of longitude will join together at the zero point.

However, at the equator, each degree of longitude – the distance from a meridian (let’s say the Zero Prime Meridian) to one-degree east or west – will be exactly 111,319.458 meters (111,320 meters, as often quoted) according to today’s estimates.

The designer/architect knew the ‘base to height’ ratio of the Pyramid that was to be constructed. But it was essential that the Pyramid should be at a practical size and scale that would also be in proportion with the measure of the Earth. For the last four to five decades it has been known that the scale chosen for the towering, enigmatic-shaped construct we know as the Great Pyramid of Giza, was 1/43,200th the size of the Earth.

Fig. 1: One degree of LONGITUDE at the equator (the distance from a meridian – say, the Zero Prime Meridian – to one-degree East or West)

= 111,319.458 meters – often rounded-off to 111,320 meters.

Notes and References

1. The Great Pyramid by David Pratt.

2. Secrets of the Great Pyramid by Peter Tomkins (Harper and Row) 1971.

3. The Great Pyramid – Reflections in Time by John Tatler.

4. The Size of the Great Pyramid by Robert Bauval and Jean-Paul Bauval, March 7, 2017.

5. Pyramid Odyssey by William R. Fix, (Smithmark, 1978), p. 27.

Degree of Latitude

Latitude is the measurement of distance both north and south of the equator.

From the equator to either of the poles there are 90 degrees of latitude. But again, at the equator the Earth is 42.7694 km wider and curves more sharply than it does at the poles, so although each degree of latitude will be roughly equal in length, compared to the degrees of longitude that will each vary in length from 111,323.8 meters at the equator to zero at the poles, each degree of latitude will show a slightly shorter difference in length.

At the equator, each degree of latitude – being the distance one travels from the equator to ‘one degree’ north – is 110,574.2727 meters (110,574.3 as often quoted), again according to today’s estimates.

Each degree of latitude and longitude is further sub-divided into 60 minutes, which is further sub-divided into 60 seconds, so that 30 minutes represents a half degree and 30 seconds a half minute.

One 24-hour day, x 60 = 1,440 minutes, x 60 = 86,400 seconds.

One 24-hour day divided by 2 = 12 hours, x 60 = 720 minutes, x 60 = 43,200 seconds.

86,400 / 2 = 43,200, and so two seconds is 1 / 43,200th of a day.

At the equator, one Minute of Latitude (which is also one Nautical Mile) is 1.843 kilometers (1,843 meters). These are rounded-off values. Since the nautical mile was taken as being one minute of a geographical degree, then it follows that the nautical mile varies slightly in length depending ‘where’ on the globe it is measured.

It is calculated to be 1,861 meters at the poles and again, 1,843 meters at the Equator.

Height and Base Perimeter

It was during the mid to late ’70s, when the author William R. Fix had made two new ‘major’ discoveries about the Great Pyramid that had led him to conclude that the Great Pyramid is virtually a mathematical ‘scale model’ of the northern hemisphere of the Earth at the scale of 1: 43,200, as first discovered by Professor of ancient history, Livio Catullo Stecchini, and published in 1971. Stecchini based his own observational data on the results of the survey carried out by J. H. Cole and published in 1925 in Cole’s book, Determination of the Exact Size and Orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

Based on Stecchini’s statements in Notes of the Relation of Ancient Measures to the Great Pyramid, featured as an appendix in the book, Secrets of the Great Pyramid by Peter Tompkins (1971),[2]

Fix discovered, the height of the pyramid would have represented the polar radius, and the perimeter of its base would have represented the bulge of the Earth’s equatorial circumference.

Consulting the latest Geodetic survey available at that time, Fix took into account the estimated size of the pyramid’s square base perimeter – NOT that of the Great Pyramid itself – but its extended base perimeter, which extends from each of its four corners seen above the pavement/platform upon which the Great Pyramid is situated, and which penetrate beneath the level of the pavement to each of the exterior corner points of the four corner sockets that had been cut into the bedrock underneath. (see figure 4).

Fix published his findings in his book Pyramid Odyssey in 1978, which is still highly-valued today by authors and readers of the so-called ‘alternative history’ genre, and is a book that had already addressed many of the themes that were presented in the best-selling book, Fingerprints of the Gods by Graham Hancock some seventeen years later:

We shall now examine these discoveries:

“He [W. R. Fix] has shown that not only is the height of the Pyramid in direct relation to the Polar Radius of the Earth by this ratio but also the perimeter at the sockets at the base has the same ratio to the world’s best estimates of the circumference of the Earth at the Equator.” [3]

1. Height of the Great Pyramid including the base of the Platform

on which it Rests, is Equal to the Polar Radius of the Earth

In his height measurements for the Great Pyramid, W. R. Fix did something that no one had done before . . . he included the height of the limestone pavement – the relatively thin platform (also referred to as the socle) upon which the Great Pyramid is seen to be situated. This was another factor about the Great Pyramid that had been apparently overlooked in previous measurement studies.

Fix states that the height of the pyramid, which he rounds off to almost 481 feet (which would be correct), including the height of the relatively thin platform/pavement it rested upon, produces a height that when multiplied by 43.200, reflects the polar radius of the Earth.

First of all, Petrie states that the pavement, and where found, was measured to be around 21 inches. Fix himself stated that the height of the platform is roughly 55 cm (21.6 inches) high, which is close to one royal cubit in height. According to André Pochan (The Mysteries of the Great Pyramids, 1978, p. 12), the thickness of the platform is “0.525 meters. (exactly 1 cubit).”

We now know that the length of the royal cubit is exactly 0.5236 meters (3.1416 π ÷ 6), which is 20.614 inches, or 1.71784777 feet, and which rounds-off to 1.718 feet – an expression of e–1.

Seeing as the royal cubit of 0.5236 meters was employed in the construction of the Great Pyramid, the pavement/platform having been instructed by the designer/architect to be ONE royal cubit high would make logical sense, and so 0.5236 meters is the height I will use to present the following based on the discovery made by Fix.

The Great Pyramid height of 146.608 meters (280 Royal Cubits), plus the platform of 0.5236 meters, is a total of 147.1316 meters (281 Royal Cubits).

1,842.905 meters (one minute of latitude and one nautical mile at the equator) ÷ 2 = 921.4525 meters (one half minute of latitude and half of one nautical mile at the equator).

According to the estimated base lengths published by J.H. Cole in 1925, the base perimeter of the Great Pyramid when completed, would have been 921.455 meters.

North Side base length: 230.253 meters.

South Side base length: 230.454 meters.

East Side base length: 230.391 meters.

West Side base length: 230.357 meters.

Cole’s Great Pyramid base perimeter estimate of 921.455 meters compared to 921.4525 meters (‘one half-minute of latitude’ and ‘one half of a nautical mile at the equator’) is a difference of only 0.0025 meters . . . 2.5 millimeters! And an accuracy of 99.9997%.

2.5 millimeters can hardly be considered substantial, but let’s continue.

The four base lengths I have determined, and which are determined by the base lengths of the Great Pyramid’s two cross-section planes, will each produce a wealth of significant data relating to pi, Phi, phi, the number e, also the c ‘speed of light’ constant and more besides – data that has only been recently discovered and was unknown to both J. H. Cole and W. R. Fix.

So, let’s see how the sum of the four base lengths of the Great Pyramid I have now determined in meters compares to J. H. Cole’s estimates . . .

North Side base length: 230.2577 meters.

South Side base length: 230.452 meters.

East Side base length: 230.3649 meters.

West Side base length: 230.3806 meters.

The sum of all four base lengths results in a base perimeter of exactly 921.4552 meters.

Therefore, the Great Pyramid’s base perimeter I have determined of exactly 921.4552 meters is also extremely close to 921.4525 meters – being ‘one half-minute of latitude’ and ‘one half of a nautical mile at the equator’ . . . a difference of only 2.7 millimeters and again, an accuracy of 99.9997%.

Also, one side base length of the Great Pyramid relating to a perimeter of 921.4552 meters is on average 230.3638 meters, which is roughly 1/8th of a minute of latitude at the equator of 230.363125 meters.

And furthermore, half of one side base length of the Great Pyramid is on average 115.1819 meters, which is roughly 1/16th of a minute of latitude at the equator of 115.1815625 meters.

So, the conclusions are this:

Great Pyramid base perimeter of 921.4552 meters (my estimate) x 2 = 1,842.9104 meters.

(One minute of latitude and one nautical mile at the equator is 1,842.905 meters).

Accuracy: 99.9997 percent.

Great Pyramid base perimeter of 921.4552 meters x 43,200 = 39,806,864.64 meters.

39,806,864.64 meters, ÷ 360 = 110,574.624 meters.

(One degree of latitude at the equator is 110,574.3 meters).

Accuracy: 99.9997 percent.

As Fix had also observed in his time, there has been virtually no reaction to these particular facts concerning the base lengths of the Great Pyramid by Egyptologists, archaeologists and scholars. Few Egyptologists seem to be even aware of it. Paraphrasing Fix, Although the tomb explanation is just a theory at the end of the day Egyptologists will merely disregard information which does not support this view. As far as the Egyptologists are concerned the Pyramid is a tomb and nothing more.

‘The Great Pyramid embodies an advanced knowledge of geometry, geodesy (the science of earth measurement), and astronomy. It incorporates not only the value of pi, the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, but also the golden section, phi, found in the growth patterns of living things.

For example, the angle of slope of the Pyramid’s outer casing was 51.85 degrees, the tangent of which is equal to 4/pi, and the cosine to the value of the golden section.

The Pyramid squares the circle: the perimeter of its square base is the same length as the circumference of a circle with a radius equal to its height.

The Pyramid stands at the centre of the earth’s land mass: the lines of latitude and longitude on which it lies pass through more land and less water than any others. It represents the earth’s northern hemisphere on a scale of 1:43,200: its perimeter equals a half minute of latitude at the equator; the perimeter of the corner sockets equals a half minute of equatorial longitude, or 1/43,200 of the earth’s circumference; and its height, including the platform, is 1/43,200 of the earth’s polar radius.

It is only since the carrying out of satellite surveys from space in the 1970s that scientists have obtained measurements of the earth as accurate as those contained in the Pyramid.

The Pyramid also embodies various astronomical data. To suggest – as most Egyptologists do – that all this is merely a matter of ‘coincidence’ and ‘chance’ is simply laughable.’ [1]

This quote just about ‘sums up’ everything I am going to reveal in detail throughout the next three three presentations – including mathematical proof that the Great Pyramid was deliberately constructed at the scale of 1: 43,200 so that BOTH the polar and equatorial measures of the Earth would be encapsulated within this splendidly designed pyramid, which was then constructed close to the center of the Earth’s landmasses.

But before I reveal all this, we must first note the following facts about our planet.

Fig. 2: One degree of LATITUDE at the equator (being the distance from the equator to one-degree north) is 110,574.2727 meters.

Fig. 4: Pavement height of 0.5236 meters (1 royal cubit) + height of 146.608 meters (280 royal cubits) = 147.1316 meters (281 royal cubits).

If we multiply 147.1316 (281 royal cubits) by 43,200, the result is 6,356,085.12 meters.

Again, by today’s estimates, the Polar Radius of the Earth is exactly 6,356,752.3 meters.

This is a difference of only 0.415 of a mile! . . An accuracy of 99.99 percent.

In fact, the first discovery which led Fix to the conclusion that Professor Stecchini was correct in his deductions that the Great Pyramid is a scale model of the northern hemisphere of the Earth at 1: 43,200, and which led him to re-examine the height including the pavement to see if the result reflected 1/43,200th the polar radius of the Earth as revealed above, was one that had already been circulating since certain ancient Greek historians had suggested it . . . that the Great Pyramid incorporates a fraction of a geographical degree.

Fix was surely referring to Agatharchides of Cnidus (181 – 146 BCE), who said that the length of one side of the base of the Great Pyramid was equal to 1/8th minute of a degree of the Earth’s surface, meaning that the length of the base perimeter (all four side bases added together) are equal to one-half ‘arc minute’ of the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

Apparently, several of the French scholars who accompanied Napoleon on his campaign to Egypt in 1798 – one of them being the young cartographer, engineer, and archaeologist. Edme-François Jomard (1777–1862) – had revived this idea and tried to measure the Great Pyramid to determine it.

However, the efforts of Napoleon’s savants to determine the base lengths of the Great Pyramid were hindered by the 50 feet of rubble and debris that had lay at the foot of the Pyramid since the earthquake in 1301 CE, which had cracked and shaken loose the white Tura limestone blocks that covered the Pyramid. Although most of the fallen casing stones were taken away by the Arabs of the region to build fortresses and mosques in the surrounding city of Cairo, large block fragments, rubble, gravel, sand and dust still obstructed the base of the Pyramid.

To measure the Pyramid’s base perimeter, the French surveyors instructed Napoleon’s men, who were also aided by a work force of 150 Turks and led by two Frenchman named Le Père and Coutelle, to burrow down through this rubble at the NW and NE corners. At last when this arduous task was completed, the men then came across two rectangular depressions (sockets) where the original cornerstones of the Great Pyramid had rested, but which like the other casing stones had been carried off centuries earlier.

Jomard tried measuring the north side and estimated that the pyramid complete with its casing stones would have been around 230.902 meters (757.5525 feet). We know today that the north side base length would have been 230.2577 meters (755.439 feet). Although close, we have to take into consideration the instruments Jomard was using at that time which were not that accurate, and the fact that he was still hampered by the heap of rubble/debris along the north side of the Pyramid.

Jomard then climbed to the summit of the Pyramid and as he made his descent from the 10-meter (33-foot) square platform, he measured the height of each of the course layers. From this he calculated the height to have been around 146.6 meters, or 481 feet. This is surprisingly close to the height estimated today of 146.608 meters – virtually 481 feet. However, from these measurements, Jomard worked out the base to height ratio slope angle of 51º 14" (51.234º), and an apothem length of 184.7 meters (606 feet) – both of which are surely in error if the height of 146.6 meters and base length of 230.902 meters are the estimates he presented as recorded.

Together, a height of 146.6 meters and a base length of 230.902 meters, will in fact produce a hypotenuse angle of 51° 46' 48.0000" (51.78º) and a hypotenuse (apothem) length of 186.6 meters.

In any case, Jomard’s colleagues who also measured the Great Pyramid, came up with varying results and found it virtually impossible to determine what the intended measurements of each of the four bases would have been, as no two measurements as regards the sides could be agreed upon. Also, and as Fix informs us, the savants were uncertain if they should be looking for a fraction of a degree of latitude or longitude, or even if they should expect values for the equator or the latitude of Egypt – specifically Giza, which is just under 30º north of the equator.

Still, Jomard, who was only 23 years of age by the time Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign had ended, was convinced that the ancient Egyptians had an advanced knowledge of geometry and mathematics, and that they somehow knew the shape and dimensions of the Earth long before the Greek Eratosthenes (c. 3rd century BCE). Jomard believed, as did his colleagues, that it was the ancient Egyptians and not the Greeks who created the science of sacred geometry, that the designer/architect had simply derived units of measure from the Earth’s circumference and used this knowledge to build the Great Pyramid. For example, taking the north side base length, which he measured to 230.902 meters, Jomard estimated that the base perimeter of the Pyramid, complete with its casing stones, would have been 923.608 meters, and soon realized that twice this value was 1,847.216 meters, which he knew was one minute of arc at the latitude of Egypt being 27º 40' N (27.67ºN).

Unfortunately, all this was all to no avail at the time, as these particular conclusions by Jomard, which he continually maintained and argued for, were given little attention.

Finally, in 1925, with the rubble, debris, gravel and sand having been totally removed from the sides and the corners of the Great Pyramid, the English surveyor J. H. Cole was able to determine the best estimates thus far regarding the Pyramid’s four base lengths, which he found to be different on each side – therefore substantiating the findings made between 1880 and 1882 by William Matthew Flinders Petrie and the French savants some eighty years earlier.

Taking the base length estimates published by J. H. Cole in 1925, as did Stecchini before him, Fix discovered the ancient Greek historians to be correct . . . that the measure of the ‘base perimeter’ of the Great Pyramid (the base lengths of all four sides added together) is equal to one-half ‘arc minute’ of the equatorial circumference of the Earth.

2. The Base Perimeter of the Great Pyramid is Equal to ‘Half a Minute’ of Equatorial Latitude

In his book, Pyramid Odyssey, Fix demonstrates how the sum measure of the ‘base perimeter’ of the Great Pyramid, complete with its casing stones measured in meters, would have reflected a one ‘half minute’ of equatorial latitude (half a minute of arc), which equals 1/43,200th of 360º:

360 ÷ 43,200 = 0.00833… of a degree, which is virtually equal to half of one minute of arc of 0.0085 degrees. Again, it has been calculated that one DEGREE of latitude at the equator – being the distance from the equator to one-degree north – is 110,574.3 meters.

Now, one MINUTE of latitude (which is also one nautical mile) at the equator is a rounded-off value of 1,843 meters (1.843 kilometers).

Here’s how . . .

One degree of latitude at the equator of 110,574.3 meters x 360 = 39,806,748 meters (referencing the polar circumference of the Earth), divided by 43,200 = 921.4525 meters (one half minute of latitude at the equator, x 2 = 1,842.905 meters, which would be the precise length of one minute of latitude and one nautical mile at the equator, but which rounds-off to 1,843 meters.

“It has been calculated that one arc minute at the equator will increase by a factor of about 1.0077 thus giving a nautical mile distance of 1,842.9 meters. This a value very close indeed to 1,843.06 m, twice the base perimeter of the Great Pyramid, the difference being only 0.000066 %. To put it another way, half of one minute of arc measure at the latitude of the equator is virtually the same as the perimeter of the base of the Great Pyramid.”[4]

“But not everyone thinks so.

L.C. Stecchini, a professor of ancient history specializing in the study of measures and ancient geography, sees it as a major verification that there was an advanced science of geography in ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt. Stecchini tells us that the front of the Parthenon in Athens is equal to one second of equatorial longitude, that the famous renegade pharaoh Akhenaton (or Ikhnaton, formerly Amenophis IV, who reigned about 1375 – 1358 B.C.) deliberately placed his new and short-lived capital city of Tell el-Amarna in the geographic center of Egypt, midway between its northern and southernmost points, in accord with the concept that the capital should be at the center and at the center of the country, and that many other similar indications of an understanding of latitude and longitude are found in ancient remain and documents.” [5]

Fix writes that while visiting Egypt in 1975, he “discovered that there were two additional such measurements, even more dramatic and important than the value for latitude.” [6]

He had read that Professor Stecchini had suggested that the Pyramid builders could have been expected to incorporate a value for equatorial longitude, since this measurement at the equator is more basic than that of latitude. However, Fix also noted that Stecchini had not come across any figures to show that the Pyramid builders had achieved this.

Fix had already worked out that one half minute of equatorial longitude (927.66215 meters) is just over 6 meters longer than one half minute of equatorial latitude (921.4525 meters). The precise difference is 6.20965 meters.

Therefore, as Fix writes: “. . . if a value for equatorial longitude is involved, it must be incorporated in some measurement larger than the Pyramid’s perimeter.” [7]

Artwork Copyright © Gary Osborn 2016. All Rights Reserved.

Artwork Copyright © Gary Osborn 2016. All Rights Reserved.

Artwork Copyright © Gary Osborn 2016. All Rights Reserved.